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Traceability of organic fish - Authenticating the production origin of salmonids by chemical and isotopic analyses

Molkentin, Joachim; Lehmann, Ines; Ostermeyer, Ute and Rehbein, Hartmut (2015) Traceability of organic fish - Authenticating the production origin of salmonids by chemical and isotopic analyses. Food Control, 53, pp. 55-66.

[thumbnail of Molkentin et al FoodControl 53 (2015) 55-66.pdf] PDF - Published Version - English
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Document available online at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S095671351500016X


To develop a practical methodology for the authentication of organic salmonid products, 130 fillet samples of trout and salmon originating from organic and conventional aquaculture as well as wild stocks (salmon) were collected from the German market over one year. Combined stable isotope analysis of d15N and d13C in defatted dry matter allowed differentiation of organically farmed from conventionally farmed salmon and brown trout, whether raw, smoked or graved. For the additional distinction of organic and wild salmon, a second analysis of d13C in fish lipids was required. Fatty acid analysis completely differentiated the three production types of salmon just by the linoleic acid content in the fish lipids, which was lowest in wild and highest in conventional salmon. Moreover, the elevated myristic acid content allowed organic to be distinguished from wild and conventional salmon. Furthermore, organic and conventional brown trout could be distinguished by combining the oleic acid and gondoic acid contents. Analysis of the free astaxanthin isomeric pattern allowed a clear distinction of conventional and wild salmon, but organic salmon showed variable patterns that did not consistently allow the authentication of their origin. While a special feed composition is required in organic aquaculture, the composition of conventional aquaculture feed has changed considerably within the last decade. Consequently, the percentages of animal and vegetable components, which clearly vary between the production types, result in distinctive features in terms of stable isotope or fatty acid composition that are utilisable for the authentication of organic salmonid products. To account for potential changes in aquaculture feeding practices, the established distinctive limits should be traced and possibly adapted in future.

EPrint Type:Journal paper
Keywords:Organic fish, Salmonids, Authentication, Stable isotopes, Fatty acids, Carotenoids
Subjects: Food systems > Food security, food quality and human health
Animal husbandry > Production systems > Aquaculture
Research affiliation: Germany > Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food - MRI > Department of Safety and Quality of Milk and Fish Products
Deposited By: Molkentin, Dr. Joachim
ID Code:29293
Deposited On:11 Sep 2015 10:24
Last Modified:11 Sep 2015 10:24
Document Language:English
Refereed:Peer-reviewed and accepted

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