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Multiplexed SSR marker analysis of Diplocarpon coronariae reveals clonality within samples from Middle Europe and genetic distance from Asian and North American isolates

Oberhänsli, Thomas; Dalbosco, Anna; Leschenne, Virginie; Bohr, Anne; Buchleither, Sascha; Tamm, Lucius; Wille, Lukas; Aćimović, Srđan G.; Khodadadi, Fatemeh; Ryu, Young-Hyun; Studer, Bruno; Schärer, Hans-Jakob and Patocchi, Andrea (2021) Multiplexed SSR marker analysis of Diplocarpon coronariae reveals clonality within samples from Middle Europe and genetic distance from Asian and North American isolates. CABI Agriculture and Bioscience, 2 (21), pp. 1-15.

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Document available online at: https://cabiagbio.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s43170-021-00039-6


Summary

Background
Apple blotch (AB) caused by Diplocarpon coronariae (Dc) has been established in Europe since 2010. AB is a serious apple disease, mostly in low input orchards and in cider production areas in Northern Italy, Switzerland, Austria and Germany. However, the epidemiology and population genetic structure of this pathogen is unknown.
Methods
We developed twelve Dc-specific microsatellite markers and screened DNA of both pure fungal isolates and infected apple leaves. The marker data of 313 European samples of Dc were compared to Dc isolates from Asia (n = 7) and the USA (n = 3).
Results
We found 31 distinct multilocus genotypes (MLGs) in European samples, and seven additional MLGs in the Asian and USA samples. The European samples had the typical genetic signature of a recently introduced species including high clonality, a low number of private alleles and one dominant MLG across all the sampling sites. All European MLGs were genetically distant from those MLGs of Asian and USA origin. Based on the lack of linkage disequilibrium observed, there is evidence that Dc undergoes regular cycles of sexual recombination in the European population, although the sexual stage (apothecia) has not been observed in Europe.
Conclusions
The twelve newly developed SSR markers reported here provide a useful tool to characterize the population genetic diversity and structure of Dc in Europe. Our study supports the hypothesis that Dc is a recently introduced pathogen in Europe, but of currently unknown origin. Dc has a large effective population size during field epidemics, so we believe that the pathogen has substantial evolutionary potential. Application of the SSR markers to large-scale and diverse Dc samples will help to better understand the epidemiology of AB, which has become a global apple disease, and will help guide effective mitigation strategies based on disease management and resistance breeding.


EPrint Type:Journal paper
Keywords:Apple blotch, Diplocarpon coronariae syn. Marssonina coronaria, Microsatellite markers, Clonal populations, Mixed reproduction, Abacus, FiBL20044
Agrovoc keywords:
Language
Value
URI
English
apples
http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_541
English
Marssonina
http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_23946
English
plant protection
http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_5978
Subjects: Crop husbandry > Production systems > Fruit and berries
Crop husbandry > Crop health, quality, protection
Research affiliation: Switzerland > Agroscope > ACW - Research Centre Wädenswil
Switzerland > ETHZ - Agrarwissenschaften
Switzerland > FiBL - Research Institute of Organic Agriculture Switzerland > Crops > Crop protection
Switzerland > FiBL - Research Institute of Organic Agriculture Switzerland > Crops > Special crops > Fruit
USA > Other organizations
Germany > Other organizations
DOI:10.1186/s43170-021-00039-6
Deposited By: Forschungsinstitut für biologischen Landbau, FiBL
ID Code:40081
Deposited On:17 Jun 2021 10:35
Last Modified:17 Jun 2021 11:54
Document Language:English
Status:Published
Refereed:Peer-reviewed and accepted

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