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Long-term modelling of crop yield, nitrogen losses and GHG balance in organic cropping systems

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Autret, Bénédicte; Mary, Bruno; Strullu, Loic; Chlebowski, Florent; Mäder, Paul; Mayer, Jochen; Olesen, Jørgen E. and Beaudoin, Nicolas (2019) Long-term modelling of crop yield, nitrogen losses and GHG balance in organic cropping systems. Science of The Total Environment, online, p. 134597.

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Online at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969719345887

Summary

Although organic cropping systems are promoted for their environmental benefits, little is known about their long-term impact on nitrogen (N) fate in the soil–plant-atmosphere system. In this paper, we analyze two long-term experiments: DOK in Switzerland (39-yr) and Foulum organic in Denmark (19-yr). Four treatments were considered in each experiment: two conventional treatments with (CONFYM) or without manure (CONMIN), organic with manure (BIOORG) and unfertilized treatment (NOFERT) at DOK; conventional (CGL-CC+IF) and three organic treatments, one with cover crops only (OGL+CC-M) and two including cover crops and grass-clover with (OGC+CC+M) or without manure (OGC+CC-M), at Foulum. STICS model was used to simulate crop production, N surplus, nitrate leaching, gaseous N losses and changes in soil organic N. It was calibrated in the conventional treatments and tested in organic systems. The crop production, N surplus and soil organic N stocks were satisfactorily predicted. The mean N surplus greatly differed between treatments at DOK, from −58 (NOFERT) to +21 kg N ha−1 yr−1 (CONFYM), but only from −9 (OGL+CC-M) to +21 kg N ha−1 yr−1 (OGC+CC+M) in Foulum. Soil N pools declined continuously in both sites and treatments at a rate varying from −18 to −78 kg N ha−1 yr−1, depending on fertilization and crop rotation. The decline was consistent with the observed N surpluses. Although not all simulations could be tested against field observations and despite of prediction uncertainties, simulations confirm the hypothesis that environmental performances resulting from C and N cycles depend more on specificities of individual than nominal treatments. Significant correlations appeared between long-term N surplus and soil N storage and between total N fertilization and total N gaseous losses. Results showed in both experiments that arable organic systems do not systematically have lower N surplus and N losses than conventional ones, providing opportunity for increasing N use efficiency of these systems.


EPrint Type:Journal paper
Keywords:STICS model, Greenhouse Gas Emission, SON storage, Nitrate, Crop rotation, long-term experiments, DOK
Subjects: Soil > Soil quality
Crop husbandry
Environmental aspects > Air and water emissions
Research affiliation: Denmark > AU - Aarhus University
Switzerland > FiBL - Research Institute of Organic Agriculture Switzerland > Soil Sciences
Switzerland > Agroscope
France > INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique
DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.134597
Deposited By: Forschungsinstitut für biologischen Landbau, FiBL
ID Code:37044
Deposited On:12 Mar 2020 13:21
Last Modified:12 Mar 2020 13:21
Document Language:English
Status:Published
Refereed:Peer-reviewed and accepted

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