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Etablierung der homöopathischen Mastitistherapie in einem biologisch-dynamisch wirtschaftenden Milcherzeugerbetrieb unter Berücksichtigung ökologischer, epidemiologischer und ökonomischer Gesichtspunkte.

Merck, C.C.; Fidelak, C.; Klocke, P.; Reinecke, A.; Paal, K.; Rothe, J. and Spranger, J. (2004) Etablierung der homöopathischen Mastitistherapie in einem biologisch-dynamisch wirtschaftenden Milcherzeugerbetrieb unter Berücksichtigung ökologischer, epidemiologischer und ökonomischer Gesichtspunkte. [Implementation of homeopathic mastitis therapy in a bio-dynamic dairy farm regarding ecological, epidemiological and economic aspects.] Freie Universität Berlin, Tierklinik für Fortpflanzung.

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Summary

6 Summary The dairy cow mastitis as a disease with an immense economic impact is widely spread in organic as well as in conventional farms. Due to the lack of alternatives to antibiotic treatment, most therapeutical measures are based on antibiotics even in organic farms and against common regulations. In contrary to these procedures the EU regulations (Council Regulation EC 1804/99)as well as the consumer’s anticipation demand the possibly lowest levels of residual charges of dairy products and environment. A two and a half year study in a bio-dyn dairy herd in Brandenburg (Germany) with 300 dairy cows suffering from udder health problems was conducted to evaluate if clinical mastitis in dairy cows is to control successfully with homeopathic remedies to minimize antibiotic treatment. To assess the efficacy of the homeopathic treatment the investigations are made using a double blind placebo controlled study design (RCCT). Using a predetermined treatment protocol and a certain diagnostic pattern to match right remedies in the sense of the homeopathic remedy pictures, the intention of the chosen treatment schedule was to provide a very transparent concept which can be used also by unexperienced veterinarians. For treatment of acute mastitis the following remedies were used: Phytolacca D6, Bryonia D6 , Echinacea D6 and Belladonna D6. Aconitum D6 was added in case of fever at the beginning of disease. Cases of chronical and subclinical mastitis were treated by Echinacea D6, Phytolacca D6 and Hepar sulfuris D8. In the first part of the study nearly all mastitis cases were treated only with homeopathics avoiding antibiotics strictly. The unsatisfying results in this part lead to a modification in the second part in which in case of certain infections (S.aureus, Sc.spp.) a limited use of antibiotics was admitted. Furthermore, selected udders with subclinical and chronical infections with these kind of bacteria were dried off antibiotically. Simultaneously the farmer was engaged to intensify the efforts to optimize preventive and environmental measures in the herd.
In the second part of the study 126 cows (148 quarters) suffered from clinical mastitis (Verum: n=60; Placebo: n=66). The cure rates were nearly identical. In the whole population the clinical cure rate (CCR) immediately after treatment was 95%, 7 to 8 weeks after treatment 65%. The 107 clinically affected quarters which were infected by pathogenic bacteria showed a bacteriological cure rate (BCR) of 55% each and a complete bacterio-cytological cure rate (BCCR) of 35% and 40% after 4-5 weeks and 7-8 weeks after treatment, respectively. During the observation time of 8 weeks a total of 12 cows in each of the treatment groups produced a homologous recurrent infection. 6 cows in the verum group and 4 cows in the placebo group developed a new infection in one of the other quarters. The treatment results seems to be satisfying while the enhanced but still not optimized environmental conditions in the herd are possibly responsible for the high amount of new infections and recurrences.
Looking at the results of the study at all, the use of antibiotics could be decreased by 75% due to the therapy management (in spite of the change of it because of unsatisfying results) in combination with preventive measures. Additionally the herd udder health could be increased. So the mean herd somatic cell count decreased by 75.000 somatic cells/ml to 165.000 somatic cells/ml. Furthermore, the milk yield increased by 250 kg to 6.500 kg/cow/year. The count of infections with S. aureus in the herd decreased dramatically.
The decreasing input of antibiotics in mastitis therapy in the project farm lead to a decrease of 36.000 kg antibiotically loaded milk compared to a hypothetic conventional mastitis management.
Furthermore, the omission of withdrawal times after homeopathic treatment resulted in a benefit of additional production milk of 25.000 kg. The antibiotics minimizing therapy concept of the second part of this investigation which could be evaluated under practice conditions can be recommended for other farms too if simultaneous herd prevention measures can be assured by the farm manager to ensure good preconditions for the convalescence of the cows.
The cure rates after placebo are unexpected high. Due to these results it is profoundly debatable whether the strategies of conventional therapy of bovine mastitis are suitable to ensure herd udder health. It should be evaluated which part of the cure rate is amounted by self cure and which other factors have an effect on the healing. The nearly identical cure rates in both treatment groups do not allow the proof of homeopathic efficacy at all. Indeed, comparing the bacteriologically caused mastitis cases (107 quarters), there is a significantly higher cure rate in the verum group (p < 0.05).

Summary translation

Die Mastitis des Rindes, eine der wirtschaftlich bedeutendsten Krankheiten in der Rinderhaltung, ist auch in biologisch wirtschaftenden Milchviehbetrieben weit verbreitet. Da ihre Behandlung derzeit fast ausschließlich durch die Verabreichung von Antibiotika erfolgt, werden auch hier in Ermangelung von Alternativen größere Mengen Antibiotika entgegen den eigenen Vorgaben und Richtlinien eingesetzt. Ein solches Vorgehen entspricht nicht den gesetzlichen Grundlagen der geltenden EU-Verordnung (EG Nr. 1804/99) zum ökologischen Landbau sowie den Verbrauchererwartungen und der Forderung nach möglichst minimaler Umwelt- und Lebensmittelbelastung innerhalb der Tierhaltung.
In dem Bemühen, Alternativen anzubieten, sollte in einer zweineinhalbjährigen Studie in einem biologisch-dynamisch wirtschaftenden Milchviehbetrieb in Brandenburg in einer etwa 300 Kühe umfassenden Herde mit einer gestörten Eutergesundheit geprüft werden, ob klinische Euterentzündungen des Rindes auch mit homöopathischen Arzneimitteln erfolgreich zu behandeln sind, um so auf den Einsatz von Antibiotika weitgehend verzichten zu können. Um die Effizienz der homöopathischen Therapie beurteilen zu können, erfolgten die Mastitisbehandlungen im Rahmen einer placebo-kontrollierten Doppel-Blind-Studie. Durch die Vorgabe eines Behandlungsschemas und die Erarbeitung eines Befundrasters für die Wahl der einzusetzenden Arzneimittel sollte den in der Regel weniger erfahrenden Tierärztinnen und Tierärzten die Übernahme des zu prüfenden Behandlungskonzeptes erleichtert werden. Für die Behandlung akut verlaufender Mastitiden kamen Phytolacca, Bryonia, Echinacea und Belladonna und zusätzlich Aconitum bei fieberhaften Erkrankungen im Anfangsstadium sowie bei subakut bis chronisch verlaufenden Mastitiden Echinacea, Phytolacca und Hepar sulfuris, alle in niederen Potenzen zwischen D 6 und D 8, zum Einsatz.
Das zu Beginn der Untersuchungen zugrunde gelegte Behandlungskonzept, basierend auf einem weitgehenden Verzicht des Einsatzes von Antibiotika, musste wegen unbefriedigender Behandlungsergebnisse aufgegeben werden (erster Versuchsabschnitt). Dieses wurde ersetzt durch ein modifiziertes Therapiekonzept, das einen zusätzlichen, jedoch begrenzten Einsatz von Antibiotka vorsah und gleichzeitig den Tierhalter zur Durchführung und Sicherung dringend erforderlicher Präventivmaßnahmen verpflichtete. Weiterhin sollten Euter mit subklinisch und chronisch verlaufenden Mastitiden zu Beginn der Trockenphase kontrolliert und selektiv mit Antibiotika trockengestellt werden (zweiter Versuchsabschnitt).

EPrint Type:Report
Subjects: Animal husbandry > Production systems > Dairy cattle
Animal husbandry > Health and welfare
Research affiliation: Germany > University of Berlin - FU > Animal Reproduction Clinic
Switzerland > FiBL - Research Institute of Organic Agriculture Switzerland > Animal Health
Deposited By: Klocke, Dr. Peter
ID Code:6219
Deposited On:08 Feb 2006
Last Modified:12 Apr 2010 07:31
Document Language:German - Deutsch
Status:Unpublished
Refereed:Not peer-reviewed

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