Hakala, Kaija; Kontturi, Markku and Pahkala, Katri (2009) Field biomass as global energy source. Agricultural and Food Science, 18 (3-4), pp. 347-365.
- Published Version
Current (1997–2006) and future (2050) global field biomass bioenergy potential was estimated based on FAO (2009) production statistics and estimations of climate change impacts on agriculture according to emission scenario B1 of IPCC. The annual energy potential of raw biomass obtained from crop residues and bioenergy crops cultivated in fields set aside from food production is at present 122–133 EJ, 86–93 EJ or 47–50 EJ, when a vegetarian, moderate or affluent diet is followed, respectively. In 2050, with changes in climate and increases in population, field bioenergy production potential could be 101–110 EJ, 57–61 EJ and 44–47 EJ, following equivalent diets. Of the potential field bioenergy production, 39–42 EJ now and 38–41 EJ in 2050 would derive from crop residues. The residue potential depends, however, on local climate, and may be considerably lower than the technically harvestable potential, when soil quality and sustainable development are considered. Arable land could be used for bioenergy crops, particularly in Australia, South and Central America and the USA. If crop production technology was improved in areas where environmental conditions allow more efficient food production, such as the former Soviet Union, large areas in Europe could also produce bioenergy in set aside fields. The realistic potential and sustainability of field bioenergy production are discussed.
|EPrint Type:||Journal paper|
|Keywords:||biomass, energy, food, global, potential, residues,|
|Subjects:|| Environmental aspects|
|Research affiliation:||Finland > Luke Natural Resources Institute|
|Deposited By:||Koistinen, Riitta|
|Deposited On:||08 Mar 2010 13:56|
|Last Modified:||12 Apr 2010 07:43|
|Refereed:||Peer-reviewed and accepted|
Repository Staff Only: item control page