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A ‘during-infection’ spray strategy using sulphur compounds, copper, silicon and a new formulation of potassium bicarbonate for primary scab control in organic apple production.

Jamar, Laurent; Lefrancq, Bruno; Fassotte, Christianne and Lateur, Marc (2008) A ‘during-infection’ spray strategy using sulphur compounds, copper, silicon and a new formulation of potassium bicarbonate for primary scab control in organic apple production. [Stratégie de protection 'durant germination' à partir de composés du soufre, du cuivre, du silicium, et d'une nouvelle formulation du bicarbonate de potassium pour le contrôle des infections primaires de tavelure en agriculture biologique.] European Journal of Plant Pathology , 122, pp. 481-493.

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Document available online at: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10658-008-9315-0#/page-1


In a field experiment conducted over two growing seasons, the effectiveness and phytotoxicity of inorganic fungicides such as sulphur, lime sulphur, copper, silicon and Armicarb (a new formulation of potassium bicarbonate) was compared with water for the control of primary apple scab infections in Belgium on high, medium and low scab-susceptible cultivars (cvs. ‘Pinova’, ‘Pirouette’ and ‘Reinette des Capucins’, respectively). In order to drastically reduce the amount of fungicide applied in the orchard, two approaches were used: (i) a strategy involving spraying during the infection process, just before conditions for infection had been fulfilled according to the RIMpro software warning system; and (ii) a tunnel sprayer machine for treatment applications. Under field conditions that were highly favourable for disease, low rates of elemental sulphur (31.8 and 38.6 kg ha-1 year-1 in 2005 and 2006, respectively) combined with low rates of copper (2.1 kg ha-1 year-1 in both years) provided the best scab control and reduced its severity on the fruits of cv. ‘Pinova’ by 97 and 98% compared with water control in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Lime sulphur was much more effective than wettable sulphur and appeared to be efficient at temperatures below 10°C, but its effectiveness against apple scab decreased if the treatments were applied 12–24 h later than in the ‘during-infection’ spray strategy. Armicarb used alone significantly reduced apple scab severity on the leaves and fruits of the three cultivars compared with water control. Its effectiveness was as good as wettable sulphur applied using the same timing and dosage. Silicon reduced apple scab on fruits very slightly, but not on leaves. The amounts of wettable sulphur, lime sulphur, copper, silicon and potassium bicarbonate used in this experiment to control apple scab were not phytotoxic, did not increase fruit russet, did increase the yield of each cultivar and did not affect summer density of the beneficial Typhlodromus pyri. The potential and limitations of the ‘during-infection’ spray strategy as protection methods against apple scab in organic farming are discussed.

EPrint Type:Journal paper
Keywords:alternative control, disease management, lime sulphur, natural substances, polygenic resistance, Typhlodromus pyri, Venturia inaequalis
Agrovoc keywords:
Subjects: Crop husbandry > Crop health, quality, protection
Research affiliation:Belgium > Centre Wallon de Recherche Agronomique (CRA-W) (Gembloux)
Deposited By: Jamar, Ir. Laurent
ID Code:29507
Deposited On:21 Dec 2015 08:32
Last Modified:21 Dec 2015 08:32
Document Language:English
Refereed:Peer-reviewed and accepted

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