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Invloed van cadmiumconcentraties in minerale of plantaardige grondstoffen op deze gehaltes in bloed en nieren van vleesvarkens

Royer, E. and Lebas, N. (2010) Invloed van cadmiumconcentraties in minerale of plantaardige grondstoffen op deze gehaltes in bloed en nieren van vleesvarkens. [Influence of cadmium concentrations in mineral or vegetable raw materials on the levels in blood and kidneys of pigs.] Poster at: Mini-symposium nieuwe voedselveiligheidsrisico's, Wageningen (The Netherlands), June 23, 2010.

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De mogelijke cadmiumbelasting in varkens kan worden verklaard door de bijdrage van de plaatselijke landbouw, maar ook door het gebruik van minerale grondstoffen die niet lokaal worden geproduceerd. Het doel van deze studie is een vergelijking tussen de effecten van plantaardige of minerale grondstoffen met een Cd-gehalte dicht onder de toegestane norm op de concentratie in de nieren van vleesvarkens. Het Cd-gehalte in bloed geeft de recente blootstelling van de varkens weer, terwijl het Cd-gehalte in de nieren de cumulatieve blootstelling weergeeft. Het bloedgehalte en de uiteindelijke nierconcentratie van Cd zijn niet verschillend voor varkens die door de minerale fractie of de plantaardige fractie van een mengvoer blootgesteld zijn aan een verhoogd Cd-gehalte.

Summary translation

Despite regulations for soil fertilization in organic farming, some higher levels of cadmium (Cd) in the kidneys from organic pigs compared to conventional pigs have previously been reported (Lindén et al, Arch. Env. Cont. Tox., 2001). Ingestion of soil by outdoor reared animals, higher age at slaughter, variations of vegetal or mineral ingredients used in the feeds, and differences of Cd bioavailability of the components, could possibly explain the different kidney levels of Cd. The Cd exposure of pigs may be related to the local agriculture through cereals and pulses crops, but also to not locally produced mineral premixes. This study investigated the effects of Cd contents in vegetal or mineral feedstuffs on the accumulation in target organs.
Conventionally raised growing-finishing pigs with an initial weight of 20 kg were assigned to four treatments and received a phase feeding during a 114 days experimental period. A control diet including standard feedstuffs (wheat, sunflower- and soybean-meal) and mineral premix (with phytase supplementation) was compared with diets in which the Cd concentration was formulated just below the authorised limit (0.5 mg Cd per kg) by the incorporation of Cd nitrate in the mineral (Cdmin) or by the use of wheat and sunflower meal with higher concentrations (Cdplant). In the fourth group (Cdstop), pigs received the Cdplant feeds up to 70 kg, then the control diet. At slaughtering (160 days of age and 116 kg live body weight), concentrations of Cd in kidneys were measured (AAS).
A continuous exposure to a level corresponding to the legal limits for animal feeding increased the Cd levels in kidneys which exceeded the maximum value of 1000 µg/kg for human consumption. The mineral or vegetal origin of the Cd content in feeds did not result in differences of Cd concentrations in the kidneys between Cdmin and Cdplant pigs. After an initial exposure, the switch to the basal feed did not decrease significantly the concentration in kidneys of Cdstop pigs. Measurements in blood (ICP-MS) suggested that the Cd concentration in blood is linked with the current level in feed for each period.
As a conclusion, the cadmium levels in kidneys of - organic or conventional - pigs may be explained by the contribution of local agriculture, but also by the use of not locally produced mineral components. More studies are needed to understand the accumulation patterns in the organs and the contributions of agricultural environment and other sources in the pig feed chain.

EPrint Type:Conference paper, poster, etc.
Type of presentation:Poster
Keywords:cadmium, pigs, kidney, swine, feedstuffs, nutrition, varkens, nieren, grondstoffen, veevoeding
Subjects: Food systems > Food security, food quality and human health
Animal husbandry > Feeding and growth
Research affiliation: France > IFIP - Institut du porc
Deposited By: Royer, M. Eric
ID Code:17891
Deposited On:08 Dec 2010 10:29
Last Modified:08 Dec 2010 10:29
Document Language:Dutch/Nederlands
Refereed:Not peer-reviewed

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