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Erinevate viljelusviiside pikaajalise kasutamise mõju mulla toitainete sisaldusele

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Alaru, Maarika; Luik, Anne; Eremeev, Viacheslav; Talgre, Liina and Loit, Evelin (2018) Erinevate viljelusviiside pikaajalise kasutamise mõju mulla toitainete sisaldusele. [Influence of long-term cultivation of different crop production systems on soil quality.] In: Alaru, Maarika (Ed.) Agronoomia 2018 / Agronomy 2018, Tartu, pp. 46-52.

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Summary

Taimedele oluliste makrotoiteelementide (N, P, K) sisaldused mullas on 10 aasta jooksul nii mahe- kui ka tavasüsteemi kõigi variantide mullas vähenenud. Lämmastikukadu mullast oli mahesüsteemi variantidel väiksem kui tavasüsteemi variantidel, seega mulla lämmastikusisalduse järgi oli maheviljeluse süsteem mullaviljakust säästvam kui tavaviljeluse süsteem.
Mulla fosforisisalduse taset hoidev oli mahesüsteemis väetamisvariant, kus kasvatati talviseid vahekultuure ja külvikorra jooksul väetati taimi kolm korda sõnnikuga ning tavasüsteemis maksimaalses koguses lämmastikku saav variant. Kaaliumisisaldus vähenes kõigi katses olnud variantide mullas. Et kaaliumisisaldus ei väheneks kriitilise piirini, peab mulda viidava kaaliumi kogust suurendama – mahesüsteemis on soovitav kasutada looduslikel mineraalidel põhinevaid mahepõllumajanduses lubatud väetisi ja tavasüsteemis suurendada näiteks kartulile antava K kogust. Võimalik on ka muuta külvikorras kasvatatavaid kultuure.

Summary translation

In 2008, long-term five field crop rotation experiments comparing organic and conventional growing systems were established at the Estonian University of Life Sciences (58°22’N, 26°40’E) on Stagnic Luvisol soil (sandy loam surface texture, C 1.38%, and N 0.13%, pHKCl 6.0). During five-year crop rotation period five different crops followed each other in the order: barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) with undersown red clover, red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.), potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Three organic and four conventional N treatments were compared. The organic treatments were a control, one with catch crops and one with addition of fully composted cattle manure at a rate of 40 t ha−1. The four conventional farming systems differed in the amounts of mineral fertilisers used as follows: N0P0K0 (control), N50P25K95, N100P25K95, N150P25K95. The data in the present study concerned the period 2008–2017, i.e. two crop cycle periods. The effect of the treatments on the soil N, P and K content were assessed.
The content of vital macronutrients (N, P, K) in the soil has decreased in organic and convetional cropping system treatments during last 10 years. The loss of nitrogen and phosphorous was the lowest in organic system treatment where winter cover crops were used and manure was applied three times during a cropping season. Based on the nutrients mentioned the organic system enabled to save more of the soil fertility compared to the conventional system. The content of potassium decreased in all treatments. In order to limit the decrease of potassium content to a critically low level, the amount of potassium applied should be increased. It is recommended to use fertilizers based on the natural minerals allowed in organic agriculture and increase the amount of potassium applied to potato in conventional agriculture.

EPrint Type:Conference paper, poster, etc.
Type of presentation:Paper
Keywords:organic and conventional farming, soil, Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium
Subjects: Soil > Soil quality
Crop husbandry
Farming Systems > Farm nutrient management
Research affiliation: Estonia > Estonian University of Life Sciences
European Union > CORE Organic Plus > FertilCrop
H2020 or FP7 Grant Agreement Number:618107
ISSN:1736-6275
Deposited By: Peetsmann, Ms Elen
ID Code:32795
Deposited On:15 Mar 2018 14:47
Last Modified:02 Apr 2020 07:26
Document Language:Estonian/Eesti
Status:Published
Refereed:Peer-reviewed and accepted

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