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DOK-Versuch (Langzeituntersuchung zu biologisch-dynamischen, organisch-biologischen und konventionellen Landbausystemen)

{Project} DOK: DOK-Versuch (Langzeituntersuchung zu biologisch-dynamischen, organisch-biologischen und konventionellen Landbausystemen). [DOK Trial (long-term trial comparing bio-dynamic, organic, conventional).] Runs 1978 - 2011. Project Leader(s): Mäder, Paul and Fliessbach, Andreas, Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL), CH-5070 Frick .

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Online at: http://www.fibl.org/english/research/annual-crops/dok/index.php


An understanding of agro-ecosystems is key to determining effective farming systems. Here we report the 21-year study of agronomic and ecological performance of bio-dynamic, bio-organic, and conventional farming systems in Central Europe. We found crop yields to be 20 % lower in the organic systems, although input of fertiliser and energy was reduced by 34 – 53 % and pesticide input by 97 %. Enhanced soil fertility and higher biodiversity found in organic plots may render these systems less dependent on external inputs.
Definition of the problem:
Soils are well buffered systems and an adaptation of the soil - plant relationship from high-input to low external input farming practices may last decades. For instance, soil nutrient stocks are frequently huge in European soils and a normalisation after conversion to organic low-input systems needs time. Also the adaptation of the soil micro-flora to altered chemical soil conditions presumably occurs only after a prolonged period of time upon conversion from high-input to low-input farming. Therefore, long-term trials are essential to assess the agronomic performance of low-input production systems and a focus should be put on studying the underlying soil processes.
Project aims:
- to analyse the long-term agronomic performance of a Swiss wheat cultivar under organic and integrated farming systems (continued)
- to investigate the interrelations of soil properties and plant growth in different farming systems
- to perform a system comparison experiment with organic and integrated farming (continued, running since 1978)
- to assess soil chemical, physical and biological properties
- to determine nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics related processes in the soil-plant –microorganisms - system
- to study the soil - plant interface
Soil microbial biomass analyses, enzyme activities, characterisation of microbial populations (Biolog, PLFA, DNA), assessment of mycorrihizal root colonisation and diversity by molecular tools, isotope tracer and dilution techniques.

Summary translation

*To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: paul.maeder@fibl.ch
Involved organisations, project partners:
- Agroscope FAL Reckenholz, CH-8046 Zurich, Switzerland
- Plant Nutrition Group, Institut für Pflanzenwissenschaften, ETH, Zurich, Switzerland
-Botanical Institute, Univ. Basel, Switzerland
Esperschütz, J., Gattinger, A., Schloter, M. and Fliessbach, A. (2005) Strukturelle und funktionelle Charakterisierung von mikrobiellen Gemeinschaften in ökologisch und konventionell bewirtschafteten Ackerböden. In: Ende der Nische, Beiträge zur 8. Wissenschaftstagung Ökologischer Landbau, Kassel, 1. - 4. März 2005, 2005. Eds J. Hess and G. Rahmann.
Fließbach, A. and Mäder, P. (2004) Short- and long-term effects on soil microorganisms of two potato pesticide spraying sequences with either glufosinate or dinoseb as defoliants. Biology and Fertility of Soils 40, 268-276.
Fliessbach, A. and Widmer, F. (2005) Microbial Biomass and Numbers. In: Microbiological Methods for Assessing Soil Quality, Eds J. Bloem, D. Hopkins and A. Benedetti. CAB International.
Fließbach, A., Dubois, D., Esperschütz, J., Gunst, L., Mäder, P., Oberholzer, H., Schloter, M. and Gattinger, A. (2005) Soil microbial community structure and organic matter transformation processes in organic and integrated farming systems. In: Researching Sustainable Systems: First Scientific Conference of the International Society of Organic Agricultural Research (ISOFAR), Adelaide, Australia, 21.-23.09.2005, 2005. Eds U. Köpke, U. Niggli, D. Neuhoff, P. Cornish, W. Lockeretz and H. Willer. pp 88-91.
Fließbach, A., Oberholzer, H.-R., Dubois, D. and Mäder, P. (submitted) Soil organic matter and biological soil quality indicators after 21 years of organic and conventional farming. Agriculture Ecosystems and the Environment
Hildermann, I., Mäder, P. and Fließbach, A. (2004) Effects of farming systems and preceding crops on soil aggregate stability (SAS) and soil microbial biomass in the DOK long-term field trial at Therwil, Switzerland. In: Eurosoil, Freiburg, 4.-12.9.2004, 2004. pp 432.
Hijri, I., Sykorova, Z., Oehl, F., Ineichen, K., Mäder, P., Wiemken, A., Redecker, D. (submitted) Community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in arable soils are not necessarily low in diversity. Molecular Ecolgy.
Mäder, P., Fließbach, A., Dubois, D., Gunst, L., Fried, P. und Niggli, U. (2002) Soil fertility and biodiversity in organic farming. Science 296: 1694-1697.
Oehl, F. , Sieverding, E., Mäder, P., Dubois, D., Ineichen, K., Boller, T., Wiemken, A., 2004: Impact of long-term conventional and organic farming on the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Oecologia 138: 574-583
Oehl, F., Sieverding, E., Ineichen, K., Mäder, P., Boller, T. und Wiemken, A., 2003: Impact of land use intensity on the species diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in agroecosystems of central Europe. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 69: 2816-2824.
Oehl, F.; Frossard, E.; Fliessbach, A.; Dubois, D. und Oberson, A. (2004) Basal organic phosphorus mineralization in soils under different farming systems. Soil Biology & Biochemistry(36):pp. 667-675.
Widmer, Albert; Husistein, Alfred; Bertschinger, Lukas; Weibel, Franco; Fliessbach, Andreas und Käser, Melanie (2004) Systemvergleichsversuch: Integrierte und biologische Apfelproduktion. Teil II: Wachstum, Ertrag, Kalibrierung, Boden [Comparison of integrated and organic apple production: Growth, Yields and Soils ]. Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Obst- und Weinbau(3):pp. 6-9.
Widmer, F., Rasche, F., Hartmann, M. and Fliessbach, A. (in press) Community Structures and Substrate Utilization of Bacteria in Soils from Organic and Conventional Farming Systems of the DOK Long-Term Field Experiment. Applied Soil Ecology.

EPrint Type:Project description
Keywords:System comparison, bio-dynamic farming, organic farming, conventional farming, soil fertility, soil quality, carbon cycling, mycorrhizal symbiosis, system performance, long-term, P cycling, N dynamics, Bodenfruchtbarkeit, DOK
Subjects: Soil
Environmental aspects > Biodiversity and ecosystem services
Research affiliation: Switzerland > FiBL - Research Institute of Organic Agriculture Switzerland > Crops > Field trials > DOK Trial
Switzerland > FiBL - Research Institute of Organic Agriculture Switzerland > Soil
Switzerland > FiBL - Research Institute of Organic Agriculture Switzerland > Sustainability > Climate
Research funders: Switzerland > Swiss Federal Office for Agriculture FOAG
Related Links:http://www.fibl.org/aktuell/pm/2002/pm-2002-science/index.php, https://orgprints.org/perl/search/advanced?keywords=Bodenfruchtbarkeit+DOK&projects=annual-crop-production&projects&_satisfyall=ALL&_order=byname&_action_search=Search
Project ID:EK 3.1
Start Date:1 March 1978
End Date:31 December 2011
Deposited By: Mäder, Paul
ID Code:14554
Deposited On:23 Oct 2008
Last Modified:05 Jan 2021 10:40

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