Bellostas, Natalia; Casanova, Esther; Garcia-Mina, Jose Maria; Sorensen, Jens Christian and Sorensen, Hilmer (2006) In vitro screening of the effect of three glucosinolate derived nitriles on soil-borne fungi. Poster at: Second International Biofumigation Symposium, Moscow, Idaho, USA, 26-29 June 2006. [Unpublished]
Glucosinolates are allelochemicals present in all plants of the order Capparales that are hydrolysed by endogenous enzymes (myrosinases) forming a variety of compounds with biological activity. ‘Biofumigation’ is the term used to describe the effect of these compounds on soil-borne pathogens and it has normally been attributed to isothiocyanates. At acidic pH and in the presence of redox co-factors such as glutathione, glucosinolate hydrolysis yields also nitriles, which are more hydrophilic and stable than isothiocyanates.
Three nitriles (allyl-, benzyl- and phenethyl cyanide) were tested against soil borne fungi of economic importance: Aphanomyces euteiches var. pisi, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici and Verticillium dahliae. The nitriles were initially tested at 1 mM and four additional concentrations were further tested in order to determine LD50.
At 1 mM, allyl cyanide showed in all cases less than 10% inhibition and it did not inhibit fungi growth at higher concentrations. LD50 of benzyl cyanide was 2.5 mM for Verticillium and Aphanomyces, whereas it was as low as 0.5 mM for Gaeumannomyces. LD50 of phenyl ethyl cyanide was 2.5 mM for Verticillium, 1.4 mM Gaeumannomyces and 1.25 mM Aphanomyces.
Although nitriles are generally less toxic than ITCs, their role in biofumigation should not be disregarded.
|EPrint Type:||Conference paper, poster, etc.|
|Type of presentation:||Poster|
|Keywords:||glucosinolates, biofumigation, nitriles, fungi|
|Subjects:||Crop husbandry > Crop health, quality, protection|
|Research affiliation:||Denmark > SOAR - Research School for Organic Agriculture and Food Systems|
|Deposited By:||Bellostas Muguerza, Natalia|
|Deposited On:||18 Sep 2006|
|Last Modified:||12 Apr 2010 07:34|
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