Bleken, Marina Azzaroli; Steinshamn, Håvard and Hansen, Sissel (2005) High Nitrogen Costs of Dairy Production in Europe: Worsened by Intensification. Ambio, 34 (8), pp. 598-606.
Intensification of agriculture has been proposed as one way of minimizing emissions per unit of product, apparently legitimizing the ongoing structural changes in agriculture. We have investigated the relationship between the farming intensity and the nitrogen (N) dissipation by calculating the overall N emission factor (E: total N surplus per unit of N in the produce) from several studies of dairy farms, covering a wide range of environments and production intensities. Fundamental steps were 1) the distinction between trophic levels, mineral, plant and animal N; and 2) the inclusion of N losses related to bought feed. The results show that E increases significantly with the production intensity of the dairy farm. The tradition for separate optimization of the animal and crop sectors may be a reason. We suggest that the N pollution can be mitigated by more extensive farming, both by re-coupling crop and animal production side by side, and by keeping land under cultivation when production is reduced.
|EPrint Type:||Journal paper|
|Keywords:||N, nitrogen, farming intensity, N budget, N balance, purchased fodder, animal husbandry, farm level case studies, dairy farming|
|Subjects:|| Animal husbandry > Production systems > Dairy cattle|
Farming Systems > Farm nutrient management
Environmental aspects > Air and water emissions
|Research affiliation:|| Norway > NORSØK - Norwegian Centre for Organic Agriculture|
Norway > NMBU - Norwegian University of Life Sciences
|Deposited By:||Steinshamn, Dr Håvard|
|Deposited On:||09 Mar 2008|
|Last Modified:||12 Apr 2010 07:32|
|Refereed:||Peer-reviewed and accepted|
|Additional Publishing Information:||Please contact Marina Azzaroli Bleken, email@example.com to discuss the contents of this paper|
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