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Vergleich von Hybridsorten mit samenfesten Sorten bei Karotten

{Project} Vergleich von Hybridsorten mit samenfesten Sorten bei Karotten. [Hybrid and open pollinating variety of carrots – a comparison.] Runs 2002 - 2004. Project Leader(s): Arncken, Christine, Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL), CH-5070 Frick.

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Online at: http://www.fibl.org/de/schweiz/forschung/bodenwissenschaften.html

Summary

There is an ongoing discussion amongst researchers and farmers involved in organic horticulture concerning the role that F1 hybrid varieties should play in organic farming. Proponents of hybrids state that their use is already much established in organic farming and that it would be a step backwards to dispense with them. Agronomic superiority of hybrids over open pollinated (OP) varieties is often claimed. Opponents to hybrid varieties claim that heterosis puts an emphasis on biomass accumulation and yield but that the more subtle aspects of ripening and creation of aroma are neglected in hybrid varieties.
Project aims including target group:
To characterize F1 and OP varieties of carrots in a 2-year field trial. Analytical and sensory parameters are collected. Target groups are plant breeders for organic farming, advisors and people interested in food quality.
Methodology:
Field trial: 1 site, two years. First year (2002): 3 F1 varieties, 3 OP varieties, 4 inbred parent lines of hybrids (2 male sterile, 2 fertile). Second year: 3 F1 varieties, 3 OP varieties. 4 replications each year.
Parameters: yield, single carrot weight, proportion of marketable carrots, leaf yield, Alternaria, foul carrots at harvest, Brix, Malat, Dry matter, ash, α-carotene, β-carotene, Isocumarin, Saccharose, Glucose, Fructose, Total sugar content, Relation of mono- and disaccharids, Protein, P, K, Ca, Mg, and 5 parameters from the tasting: Texture, Aroma, Sweetness, Bitterness and Overall impression.
Results, conclusion, state of the art:
In 2002, 29 Parameters were collected. F1 hybrids performed significantly better in 5 of these parameters (Alternaria occurence, dry matter content, dry matter yield, Saccharose content and the relation of Mono- to disaccharids). Most noticeable was the clearly higher dry matter yield of F1 varieties. OP varieties only performed better in 1 of the parameters (less bitter in the tasting).
There was a tendency for the F1 hybrids to perform better in agronomic and analytical parameters and for OP varieties to perform better in the tasting.
In 2003, 24 parameters were collected up to now (Threre was no noteworthy alternaria occurence in the field and no foul carrots at harvest. Carotene und Isocumarin contents are still owing). F1 hybrids performed significantly better in 4 of these parameters (proportion of marketable carrots, sweetness, less bitterness and overall impression in the tasting). OP varieties only had a significantly higher ash content.
There was a tendency for higher contents of minerals in OP varieties, whereas F1 hybrids tended to have higher yield and sugar parameters.
None of the collected parameters showed a significant, constant difference between the variety groups over both years.
However, F1 hybrids tended to have higher sugar contents in both years which was especially due to use of the variety “Bolero”.
This strong emphasis on sweetness was evaluated positively in the tasting: Bolero obtained the best overall impression score in both years.

Summary translation

Involved organisations, project partners:
Amadeus Zschunke, Sativa Rheinau, 8462 Rheinau, Schweiz (field trial, tasting, seed supply)
Fred van de Crommert, Bejo seeds, the Netherlands (seed supply)
Hans Schärer and Ulrich Künsch, federal research station for fruit, wine and horticulture, Agroscope FAW Wädenswil, 8820 Wädenswil, Switzerland (sugar, carotene, isocumarin content).
Literature:
-Arncken, Christine (2003) Vergleich von Hybridsorten mit samenfesten Sorten bei Möhren. Zwischenbericht für das Versuchsjahr 2002, Forschungsinstitut für biologischen Landbau Frick. orgprints.org/2740
-Elers, B. (2004): Vergleich von Hybriden und Populationssorten bei Lagerweisskohl unter den Bedingungen des Ökologischen Landbaus. In: ÖKOmenischer Gärtner-Rundbrief, Ausgabe April, Mai und Juni 2004.
-Fleck, M, von Fragstein, P., Hess, J. (2003): Keimgeschwindigkeit, Triebkraft, Feldaufgang und Ertrag von Speisemöhren in Reaktion auf Zuchtmethode und Samengrösse. In: Freyer, B. (Hg): Beiträge zur 7. Wissenschaftstagung zum Ökologischen Landbau: Ökologischer Landbau der Zukunft, Wien, 23.-26.2., S. 169-172.
-Fleck, M., Sikora, F., Rohmund, C., Gränzdörffer, M., von Fragstein, P. und Hess, J. (2002): Samenfeste Sorten oder Hybriden – Untersuchungen an Speisemöhren aus einem Anbauvergleich an zwei Standorten des Ökologischen Landbaus. In: deutsche Gesellschaft für Qualitätsforschung (Pflanzliche Nahrunsmittel) e.V. , XXXVII. Vortragstagung, Hannover, S. 167-172., S. 167-172.
-Fleck, M., Sikora, F., Gränzdörffer, M., Rohmund, C., Fölsch, E., von Fragstein, P. und Hess, J. ( 2001): Samenfeste Sorten oder Hybriden – Anbauvergleich von Möhren unter den Verhältnissen des Ökologischen Landbaus. In: Reents, H.-J. (Hg): Beiträge zur 6. Wissenschaftstagung zum Ökologischen Landbau: Von Leit-Bildern zu Leit-Linien, Freising-Weihenstephan, 6.-8.3., S. 253-256.
-Henatsch C. (2002): Fragen des biologisch-dynamischen Landbaus an die Züchtung unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Nahrungsmittelqualität. In: Kühne, S. und B. Friedrich (Hg): „Hinreichende Wirksamkeit von Pflanzenschutzmitteln im ökologischen Landbau, Saat- und Pflanzgut für den ökologischen Landbau“; Berichte aus der Biologischen Bundesanstalt 95, 44-51.

EPrint Type:Project description
Keywords:Biosaatgut, Hybridversuch
Subjects: Crop husbandry > Breeding, genetics and propagation
Research affiliation: Switzerland > FiBL - Research Institute of Organic Agriculture Switzerland > Soil Sciences
Research funders: Switzerland > Other organizations
Related Links:http://orgprints.org/perl/search/advanced?keywords=Biosaatgut+Hybridversuch&projects=annual-crop-production &projects&_satisfyall=ALL&_order=byname&_action_search=Search, http://www.sativa-rheinau.ch, http://www.bejo.com, http://www.abdp.org, http://www.kultursaat.com
Start Date:1 March 2002
End Date:31 December 2004
Deposited By: Arncken, Christine
ID Code:6380
Deposited On:11 Dec 2005
Last Modified:29 Sep 2010 10:46

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