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Verbesserung der Krankheitstoleranz von Kulturpflanzen mit resistenzinduzierenden Natursubstanzen (PEN)

{Project} PEN: Verbesserung der Krankheitstoleranz von Kulturpflanzen mit resistenzinduzierenden Natursubstanzen (PEN). [Effect of an extract from the mycelium of Penicillium chrysogenum on plant-pathogen interactions and characterisation of elicitors contained in this extract.] Runs 2000 - 2004. Project Leader(s): Thürig, Barbara and Tamm, Lucius, Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL), CH-5070 Frick.

Full text not available from this repository.

Online at: http://www.fibl.org/de/schweiz/forschung/pflanzenschutz-biodiversitaet.html

Summary

Die Pioniere des biologischen Landbaus berichten schon seit Jahrzehnten von der pflanzenstärkenden und krankheitsvermindernden Wirkung von verschiedenen Kräutertees, Kompostextrakten, Gesteinsmehlen und bio-dynamischen Präparaten. Mittlerweile wurden derartige Phänomene wissenschaftlich untersucht und unter dem Begriff der induzierten Resistenz zusammengefasst. Für die Entwicklung des Biolandbaus ist es entscheidend, dass Pflanzenschutzpräparate wie Kupfer ersetzt und die Ertragssicherheit generell erhöht wird.
Im Jahre 1997 wurde in einer von der Biochemie GmbH (Kundl, Österreich) und der Universität Basel mitbetreuten Diplomarbeit abgeklärt, ob die Widerstandsfähigkeit von Tomaten, Gurken und Reben gegen Krankheiten mit einem Naturextrakt erhöht werden kann. Die Untersuchungen haben gezeigt, dass vor allem Tomate und Rebe ein hohes Potential von Abwehrkräften aufweisen, das sich gezielt aktivieren lässt. Von 1998 bis 2000 wurden weitere Versuche mit Reben, Äpfeln, Kartoffeln und Tomaten durchgeführt. Im Moment klären wir die Grundlagen der Resistenzinduktion an der Modellpflanze Arabidopsis ab.

Summary translation

State of the Art:
In agriculture, infection of plants with microorganisms including fungi, bacteria and viruses can cause high losses of yield. Apart from a broad spectrum of indirect and direct techniques to protect plants from damage, the concept of induced resistance provides a promising strategy for the control of diseases particularly for organic agriculture. However, despite excellent efficacy of many inducing agents under controlled conditions, they often fail to perform sufficiently in practice. In addition, only few inducing agents fulfilling the criteria of organic agriculture are commercially available so far. Preliminary studies suggested that an aqueous extract from the dry mycelium of the non-pathogenic ascomycete Penicillium chrysogenum, further called ‘Pen’, can enhance resistance of many plants against several pathogens even under field condition.
Project aims:
The objective of this research is to unravel whether Pen can be used as a plant activator in commercial agriculture, to study its mode of action and to narrow down the active principles in Pen.
Methodology:
- Evaluate the effect of Pen in several cultures (grapevine, appeltree, tomato, onion) against various pathogens under controlled greenhouse and/or field conditions
- Evaluate whether the raw material for the production of Pen is available in constant quality by testing various production batches on the system tomato-Phytophthora infestans
- Explore the potential range of action (efficacy against ascomycetes, oomycetes and bacteria) of Pen using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana
- Explore signaling pathways involved in the development of resistance induced by Pen using A. thaliana mutants
- Characterize and purify the elicitor(s) contained in Pen by various methods including HPLC. Testing fractions using cell cultures of various plant species
Results, conclusion, state of the art:
Pen protected grapevine from downy and powdery mildew (P. viticola and U. necator), tomato from early blight (P. infestans), onion from downy mildew (P. destructor) and apple tree from apple scab (V. inaequalis) under greenhouse and field conditions without having a direct fungicidal effect. The efficacy of Pen was generally comparable to traditional fungicides such as copper and sulphur and equal to or even better than well-known inducers of resistance such as BABA or BTH. The raw material for extraction of Pen was of constant quality, a prerequisite for a future application in practice. However, Pen often caused phytotoxic side effects such as small necrotic spots or, more rarely, larger necrotic areas. A partially purified fraction of Pen was less toxic than the crude extract.
To study signal transduction pathways involved in Pen-mediated resistance, the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana was used, allowing a comparison with the mode of action of other well-known inducers. Pen protected A. thaliana from a broad range of pathogens, including an oomycete (Peronospora parasitica), two ascomycetes (Botryits cinerea, Alternaria brassicicola) and a bacterium (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000). Pen was still fully protective against B. cinerea in Arabidopsis mutants impaired in the salicylic acid (NahG, npr1), jasmonic acid (coi1), and ethylene (ein2) signaling pathway. Pen-mediated resistance against P. parasitica was reduced in NahG plants, but was not affected in the mutants npr1, coi1 or ein2, indicating that Pen induced resistance against P. parasitica on a salicylic acid-dependent, but NPR1-independent pathway.
Pen triggered early defense-related responses such as an extracellular alkalinisation, an oxidative burst and ethylene production in suspension-cultured cells as well as in intact leaf tissue of numerous mono- and dicotyledon plant species.
In conclusion, we could show that Pen has interesting, unique characteristics for an application as a plant protection agent in organic agriculture, provided its phytotoxic side effects can be removed.
Involved organisations, project partners:
Botanical Institute, University Basel, Switzerland
Literature:
-Thuerig B, Binder A, Boller T, Guyer U, Jiménez S, Rentsch Ch, Tamm L. (in press). An aqueous extract of the dry mycelium of Penicillium chrysogenum induces resistance in several crops under controlled and field conditions. European Journal of Plant Pathology
-Thuerig, Barbara (2004). Effect of an extract from the mycelium of Penicillium chrysogenum on plant-pathogen interactions and characterisation of elicitors contained in this extract. PhD thesis at the University of Basel, Switzerland. http://pages.unibas.ch/diss/2004/DissB_7156.pdf
-Tamm L, Rentsch C, Guyer U and Mösinger E 2003 Effects of PEN, an extract of the fungal biomass of Penicillium chrysogenum on plants and pathogens. In 7. Wissenschaftstagung zum ökologischen Landbau, Vienna, 2003. Ed B Freyer. pp 137-140.

EPrint Type:Project description
Keywords:Induced resistance, Induzierte Resistenz, elicitor, grapevine, Reben, apple, Apfel, onion, Zwiebel, tomato, Tomaten Phytophthora infestans, Plasmopara viticola, Venturia inaequalis, Uncinula necator, downy mildew, falscher Mehltau, apple scab, Schorf, Arabidopsis thaliana, Resistenzmechanismen Pflanzen, PEN
Subjects: Crop husbandry > Crop health, quality, protection
Research affiliation: Switzerland > FiBL - Research Institute of Organic Agriculture Switzerland > Plant Protection and Biodiversity
Research funders: Austria > Other organizations
Switzerland > Other organizations
Switzerland > FiBL - Research Institute of Organic Agriculture Switzerland
Related Links:http://www.fibl.org/de/schweiz/forschung/pflanzenschutz-biodiversitaet.html, http://orgprints.org/cgi/search/advanced?keywords=Resistenzmechanismen+Pflanzen%2C+PEN&projects=fibl-plant-protection-pathology&projects&_satisfyall=ALL&_order=byname&_action_search=Search, http://pages.unibas.ch/diss/2004/DissB_7156.pdf
Acronym:PEN
Start Date:1 January 2000
End Date:30 May 2004
Deposited By: Tamm, Dr. Lucius
ID Code:6300
Deposited On:22 Nov 2005
Last Modified:29 Sep 2010 12:26

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