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Einsatz von Mykorrhizen im Feldbau und in Spezialkulturen

{Project} Einsatz von Mykorrhizen im Feldbau und in Spezialkulturen. [Use of mycorrhizal inocula in field and horticultural crops.] Runs 2005 - 2007. Project Leader(s): Mäder, Paul, Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL), CH-5070 Frick.

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Online at: http://iscb.epfl.ch/

Summary

Im Rahmen von diversen Projekten soll die Bedeutung von Mykorrizapilzen im ökologischen Landbau analysiert werden. Es werden Methoden zur Nutzbarmachung und der praktischen Anwendung untersucht.
Im Projekt „Optimierung des biologischen Gemüsebaus durch Gründüngung und Fruchtfolge“ wird beispielsweise die Wirkung von unterschiedlichen Gründüngungen auf das natürliche Vorkommen und die Kolonisierung der Kulturpflanzen mit Mykorrhizapilzen untersucht.
Ebenfalls wurde die Nutzung von Mykorrhiza als Inokulum getestet. Durch die Vermehrung von vorselektionierten Stämmen konnte die Wirkung auch bei Zierpflanzen und Gemüsejungpflanzen beobachtet werden.
Geplant ist ein Projekt (ISCB), welches den Einsatz von Mykorrhizapilzen im praktischen Anbau von Leguminosen und Getreide untersuchen soll. Dort wird ebenfalls eine kombinierte Anwendung mit anderen Präparaten, beispielsweise Bakterien (PGPR) mit einbezogen.

Summary translation

State of the Art:
In this project, bio-inoculants (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: AMF and plant growth promoting bacteria: PGPR) will be integrated in legume and manure-based wheat-pulse rotations. FiBL will contribute to the new ISCB project phase by field research and by training of Indian researchers in Switzerland in the domain of organic farming. Moreover, FiBL will support sustainable agri-system design in India and assist in the co-ordination of the field research. Finally, FiBL will have a bridging function between Indian and Swiss research activities by maintaining Indian inoculants on Indian plant cultivars in the glass house in natural soils, which will be used for the development of molecular tools for monitoring AMF and PGPR.
In the previous studies of ISCB SA 6 and SA 7, some strains of AMF and PGPR have been pre-selected mainly for their plant growth stimulation under green house conditions. Here, the most promising strains will be evaluated under low-input farming conditions. In a field experiment in Switzerland, the rotation will consist of winter wheat followed by a vegetable and soybean, which are either under-sown or inter-cropped by green manure or fertilised by organic manure. The plants will be inoculated either in the field or in the seeding substrate in the nursery. Similar experiments will be performed in India in wheat-pulse and wheat-rice systems. The agronomic and economical performance of the systems will be assessed. Further, soil quality will be measured.
It is foreseen that Indian researchers are involved in the experiments in Switzerland and work for at least six months in the FiBL crew during the season. In parallel to the field experiments conducted in Switzerland, Indian researchers will develop sustainable low-input farming systems using bio-inoculants. FiBL will support this process.
FiBL will also maintain pot cultures of Indian AMF and PGPR strains, which are inoculated on Indian cultivars in natural soils. This pot cultures will be used by the project partners for a pre-evaluation of molecular monitoring tools, before the technology will be transferred to India.
In the first six month months, FiBL activities will concentrate in mass multiplication of AMF and inoculation experiments under real farm conditions. Larger scale field research will be performed in the next two growing seasons. These activities have a strong demonstration character, since Indian researchers will be involved. The project duration is 29 month, starting in May 2005.
The planned outputs are optimised, self-sufficient, self-regulated wheat-pulse systems in Switzerland and India, which are less dependent on external inputs such as nitrogen and pesticides. The experiences with the newly developed agri-systems will be transferred to farmers. The benefits of the project outcome are not only expected in terms of resource allocation and environmentally friendly production. We assume that marginal farmers will be able to produce crops less costly. Moreover the nutrition of farmer families is anticipated to ameliorate by the cultivation of more diverse crops.
Definition of the problem:
In low input systems external input of nutrients is limited. There is little scientific proof of so called bio-fertilsers (bio-inoculants) under farming practices.
Project aims:
To develop mycorrhizal inocula for low input systems.
Methodology:
Mass multiplication of mycorrhizal strains, assessment of mycorrhizal infection potential of inocula, quantification of root colonisation, bioassay in glass house to test responsiveness of test plants to mycorrhizal inoculation, field evaluation.
Results, conclusion, state of the art:
In previous project, funded by the BLE (gGermany) we have tested mycorrhizal inocula in vegetable and ornamental plants. Here the results are briefly summarised:
Use of mycorrhizal fungi and high quality composts for seedling production in organic vegetable and ornamental farming
Research project BÖL/BLE at BMVEL no. 02OE306
To introduce high quality composts and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for exacting seedling production in organic farming the following main questions have to be answered:
- What is an optimum share of compost in a substrate?
- Is a colonisation of seedlings in compost substrate with AMF possible and how can it be done successfully?
- How do AMF affect growth, health, flowering and nutrient uptake of vegetable and ornamental plants during seedling production and in the field?
- What is the diversity of native AMF in selected experimental plots and how can we assess the success of an AMF inoculation in the field?
Composts produced during project work did not contain infectious AMF. When added to white peat at 20 to 40 % (v/v), the effect on plant growth and health was better or at least the same compared with common horticultural substrates (Klasmann). Different commercial AMF (comp. Triton, Plantworks, Biorize) and AMF of the University of Basel were used and tested in compost substrates and in the field. As a result, it became obvious that
- an infection of Pelargonium, Poinsettia, leak, strawberry and lettuce is possible,
- growth (leak, strawberry, Pelargonium, Poinsettia) and flowering (Pelargonium) were improved,
- nutrient contents (P, N, K, Zn, Cu) increased partially,
- Pythium ultimum disease in peas (model) was successfully suppressed and compost induced an additional significant reduction of the disease
- in the field no significant shift of the spectrum of the native AMF species was detected after AMF inoculation,
- selected AMF strains of the Basel University promoted plant growth better than commercial products.
Positive effects depended on the specific AMF used. They were not reproducible at all locations (FiBL, FÖL, IGZ).
Involved organisations, project partners:
ISCB
Collaborating institutions in India:
Prof. Dr. Bhavdish N. Johri
Prof. Dr. Anil Sharma
Uni Pantnagar (GBPUAT)
Dr. Alok Adholeya
TERI, Delhi
Dr. Anil Prakash, Barkatullah Uni Bhopal
Collaborating institutions in Switzerland:
Prof. Dr. Andres Wiemken
Uni Basel (BIB)
Prof. Dr. Michel Aragno
Uni Neuenburg (LAMUN)
Literature:
Oehl, F. , Sieverding, E., Mäder, P., Dubois, D., Ineichen, K., Boller, T., Wiemken, A., 2004: Impact of long-term conventional and organic farming on the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Oecologia 138: 574-583
Oehl, F., Sieverding, E., Ineichen, K., Mäder, P., Boller, T. und Wiemken, A., 2003: Impact of land use intensity on the species diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in agroecosystems of central Europe. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 69: 2816-2824.
Mäder, P., Fließbach, A., Dubois, D., Gunst, L., Fried, P. und Niggli, U., 2002 : Soil fertility and biodiversity in organic farming. Science 296: 1694-1697.
Mäder P., Frey, B., Vierheilig, H., Streitwolf-Engel, R., Boller, T., Christie, P. und Wiemken, A., 2000: Transport of 15N from a soil compartment separated by a polytetrafluoro¬ethylene membrane to plant roots via the hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. New Phytologist 146: 155-161.
Mäder, P., Edenhofer, S., Boller, T., Wiemken, A. und Niggli, U., 2000: Arbuscular mycorrhizae in a long-term field trial comparing low-input (‘organic’, ‘biological’) and high-input (‘conventional’) farming systems in a crop rotation. Biology and Fertility of Soils 31, 150-156.
Siegrist, S., Schaub, D., Pfiffner, L. und Mäder P., 1998: Does organic agriculture reduce soil erodibility? The results of a long-term field study on loess in Switzerland. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 69: 253-264.
Vierheilig, H., Hug-Alt, M., Engel-Streitwolf, R., Mäder, P. und Wiemken, A., 1998: Studies on the attractional effect of root exudates on hyphal growth of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus in a soil compartment-membrane system. Plant and Soil 203: 137-144.
Vierheilig, H., Alt, M., Mäder, P., Boller, T. und Wiemken, A., 1995: Spreading of Glomus Mosseae, a vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, across the rhizosphere of host and non-host plants. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 27(8): 1113-1115.

EPrint Type:Project description
Keywords:Mycorrhiza, AMF, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, PGPR, wheat, pulse, rice, low-input agriculture, biof-ertilsers, Biohortikultur, Mykorrhiza
Subjects: Crop husbandry
Research affiliation: Switzerland > FiBL - Research Institute of Organic Agriculture Switzerland > Soil Sciences
Research funders: Switzerland > Swiss Federal Office for Agriculture FOAG
Switzerland > Other organizations
Related Links:http://iscb.epfl.ch/, http://orgprints.org/perl/search/advanced?keywords=Biohortikultur%2C+Mykorrhiza&projects=annual-crop-production&projects&_satisfyall=ALL&_order=byname&_action_search=Search, http://www.fibl.org/de/schweiz/forschung/anbautechnik-pflanzenbau.html
Start Date:1 May 2005
End Date:31 August 2007
Deposited By: Mäder, Paul
ID Code:6257
Deposited On:22 Nov 2005
Last Modified:14 Sep 2010 20:12

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