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Reduceret protein i foderet til økologiske slagtesvin fodret med forskellige mængder lupin

Fernández, José A. and Danielsen, Viggo (2006) Reduceret protein i foderet til økologiske slagtesvin fodret med forskellige mængder lupin. DJF-Rapport, no. 73. Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Animal Health, Welfare and Nutrition.

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Summary

På den økologiske forsøgsstation Rugballegård er der gennemført et forsøg, hvor der blev sat fokus på proteintildelingen til slagtesvin. Da fremskaffelse af velegnede proteinrige fodermidler til økolo-gisk produktion kan være problematisk, var formålet med forsøget at studere effekten af et reduce-ret proteinniveau i foderet og samtidig vurdere egnetheden af lupin som proteinkilde.
To hundrede grise blev fordelt på fem behandlinger: N0, N25, L0, L12,5, og L25, hvor N og L står for henholdsvis Normal og Lav proteintildeling, mens tallene 0, 12,5 og 25 angiver procent lupin i foderblandingen. Grisene, der blev opstaldet i 20 stier a` 5 galte og 20 stier a` 5 sogrise, blev fodret efter ædelyst fra foderautomater i vægtintervallet 30-105 kg. Herudover havde de på et udeareal fri adgang til kløvergræsensilage.
De to niveauer af protein i foderet var efter analyserne på henholdsvis 137 og 127 g fordøjeligt råprotein per FEs for henholdsvis N og L, mens det tilsvarende indhold af fordøjeligt lysin var hen-holdsvis 7,5 og 6,5 g per FEs. Grisenes foderoptagelse, daglige tilvækst og foderudnyttelse var ikke signifikant påvirket af proteinniveauet. Det lave proteinniveau medførte, at grisenes indhold af kød i slagtekroppen blev signifikant reduceret fra 59,8 til 59,2 procent. Denne effekt af lavt proteinniveau fandtes imidlertid alene hos galtene, som fik foder uden lupin. (59,2 vs. 57,2 pct.) og skyldtes et signifikant større foderforbrug. Det anbefales derfor at fodre galtene restriktivt i hvert fald i slutfa-sen.
Grisene, der fik tildelt protein efter normerne, havde i gennemsnit et N-tab på 47 gram, mens alle med reduceret proteintildeling i gennemsnit kun udskilte 40 gram N per kg tilvækst, hvilket svarede til en reduktion af udskillelsen på 15 procent.
Lupin inklusion (op til 25 %) havde negativt effekt (5-6 %) på grisenes daglige foderoptagelse og - tilvækst samt foderudnyttelse, men forbedrede kødprocenten med ca. 2 % enheder. Grisenes udskil-lelse af N blev forøget fra 35 til 52 gram/kg tilvækst og af P fra 8,6, til 9,3.
Anvendelsen af lupin i økologisk svinefodring medfører at methionin underskuddet i foderet for-værres, dertil kommer at proteinet i lupin indeholder mindre lysin end grisene har behov for. Ende-lig gør mængden og typen af fibre i lupin at mavetarmkanalens fyld forøges og giver anledning til større slagtesvind (0,08 % per % lupin i blanding). På den anden side indeholder lupin over 30 % råprotein og kan derfor trods alt betragtes som et anvendeligt supplement til de andre proteinkilder. Fibre indholdet, på grund af dens høje forgærhed kan have gunstig indvirkning i tarmkanalen i form af reduktion af belastning fra tarm parasitter og reduceret skatol produktion som kan have betydning for afsmag i kødet (ornelugt).
Lupin kan udmærket udnyttes i fodring af økologiske svin, men på de ovenanførte grunde, anbefa-les ikke at inkludere over 10 % i blandingen.
Protein forsyning af 100 % økologisk fodrede svin er egentlig et spørgsmål om at skaffe tilstrække-lig methionin og lysin. Forskellige foderkombinationer og næringsstoftildeling kan bidrage dertil. Eksempler på dette er angivet og diskuteret heri.

Summary translation

At the organic Research Station Rugballegård an experiment concerning protein supply for growing pigs has been carried out. Since suitable protein feeds of high quality for organic production are scarce, the aim was to study the effect of a reduced protein level in the feed and also to estimate the applicability of lupin as protein source.
Two hundred pigs were allocated to five diets: N=, N25, L12,5 and L25 where N and L mean Nor-mal and Low protein supply, respectively while the numbers 0, 12,5 and 25 state percentage of lu-pin in the feed mixture. The pigs, which were housed in 20 pens with each five castrates and 20 pens with each five sows, were fed ad-libitum from feed dispensers in the weight interval 30-105 kg. Furthermore, they had free access to grass clover silage in an outdoor veranda.
The two levels of protein in the feed were according to the analyses at 137 and 127 g digestible crude protein per FEs for N and L, respectively while the content of digestible lysine was 7.5 and 6.5 g per FEs, respectively. The feed intake, daily growth and feed utilization were not significantly influenced by the protein level. The low protein level caused that the meat content of the carcass was significantly reduced from 59.8 to 59.2%. However, the effect of a low protein level was found only at the castrates that were given feed without lupin (59.2 vs. 57.2) and this was caused by a sig-nificantly higher feed consumption. So, it is recommended to feed the castrates restrictively, at least in the terminal phase.
The pigs which were allocated protein according to the standards had in average an N-loss of 47 g while all the pigs that had reduced protein allocation, only excreted 40 g N per kg growth. This was a reduction of the excretion by 15%.
Lupin inclusion (up to 25%) had a negative effect (5-6%) on daily feed intake, growth and feed utilization but improved meat percentage by about 2% units. The excretion of N was increased from 35 to 52 g/kg growth and excretion of P from 8.6 to 9.3.
The use of lupin in organic pig feeding causes that the dietary methionine deficit is exacerbated. Furthermore, the protein in lupin contains less lysine than the pigs require. Finally, the amount and the fibre type in lupin have the effect that the content of the gastrointestinal tract increases and causes larger slaughter loss (0.08% per % of lupin in the mixture). On the other hand, lupin contains more than 30% crude protein and may, however, be considered as a useful supplement to the other protein sources. Fibre content has, because of its high fermentability a favourable effect in the intes-tinal tract in the form of smaller strain from parasites and reduced skatole production which may give off-flavour to the meat (boar taint).
Lupin may very well be used for feeding organic pigs but for the abovementioned reasons, it is not recommended to include more than 10% in the mixture.
Protein supply of 100% organically fed pigs is actually a matter of providing enough methionine and lysine. Different combinations of feed and nutrient supply may contribute to this. Examples of this are given and discussed in this article.

EPrint Type:Report
Keywords:slagtesvin lupin protein økologi
Subjects: Animal husbandry > Feeding and growth
Research affiliation: Denmark > DARCOF II (2000-2005) > II. 7 (OrganicPigFeed) Improved pig feed and feeding strategies
Deposited By: Birgit Aagaard Fisker, Senior administrative assistant
ID Code:5845
Deposited On:23 Sep 2005
Last Modified:12 Apr 2010 07:31
Document Language:Danish - Dansk
Status:Published
Refereed:Not peer-reviewed

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