Hansen, Martin N.; Sommer, Sven G. and Madsen, Niels P. (2003) Reduction of ammonia emission by shallow slurry injection: Injection efficiency and additional energy demand. Journal of Environmental Quality, 32, pp. 1099-1104.
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Ammonia (NH3) emission from livestock production causes undesirable environmental effects and a loss of plant available nitrogen. Much atmospheric NH3 is lost from livestock manure applied in the field. The NH3 emission may be reduced by slurry injection, but slurry injection in general, and especially on grassland, increases the energy demand and places heavy demands on the slurry injection techniques used. The reduction in NH3 emission, injection efficiency and energy demand of six different shallow slurry-injection techniques was examined. The NH3 emission from cattle slurry applied to grassland was reduced by all the injectors tested in the study, but there were major differences in the NH3 reduction potential of the different types of injectors. Compared with the trailing hose spreading technique, the NH3 loss was reduced by 75% when cattle slurry was injected using the most efficient slurry injection technique, and by 20% when incorporated by the least efficient injection technique. The reduction in NH3 emission was correlated with injection depth and the volume of the slot created. The additional energy demand for reducing ammonia emissions by slurry injection was approximately 13 000 kJ ha-1 for a 20% reduction and 34 000 kJ ha-1 for a 75% reduction. The additional energy demand corresponds to additional emissions of, respectively, 5.6 and 14.5 kg CO2 per ha injected.
|EPrint Type:||Journal paper|
|Keywords:||Slurry injection ammonia manure|
|Subjects:||Environmental aspects > Air and water emissions|
|Research affiliation:|| Denmark > SOAR - Research School for Organic Agriculture and Food Systems|
Denmark > Other organizations
|Deposited By:||Hansen, Scientist Martin N|
|Deposited On:||04 Oct 2004|
|Last Modified:||12 Apr 2010 07:29|
|Refereed:||Peer-reviewed and accepted|
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