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Using crop rotation to control wireworms

{Tool} Using crop rotation to control wireworms. Creator(s): Dierauer, Hansueli; Weidmann, Gilles and Siegrist, Franziska. Issuing Organisation(s): Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL). OK-Net Arable Practice abstract, no. 027. (2017)

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PDF - German/Deutsch (Drahtwürmer durch Fruchtfolgeplanung minimieren)
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PDF - English (Using crop rotation to control wireworms)
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Online at: http://orgprints.org/31031

Summary

• Perennial grass-clover leys promote wireworms. For this reason, a perennial cultivation of grass-clover ley should be avoided if there is any indication of wireworm infestation.
• After ploughing the meadows or the perennial grass-clover ley, wait until the third or, if possible, even fourth year to plant susceptible crops like potatoes, carrots, onions or salad.
• In general, a diverse crop rotation promotes various beneficial organisms and lowers the infestation of wireworms.
• No cultivation of potatoes in strongly affected areas!
• Rye, fodder radish and vetch are a possible green manure for overwintering. A low infestation of wireworms was observed in crop rotations with peas and lupines.
• The cultivation of legumes (peas, field beans, bush beans) and Brassicas (white cabbage, fodder radish, mustards) can reduce damage from wireworms.
• Grain legumes but also cereals are ideal preceding crops for potatoes.
• Keep the soil moist whilst allowing the potatoes to mature.
• Harvest the potatoes on time because the longer the tubers are in the soil, the more risk of an infestation increases
• Control couch grass (Elymus repens) because its roots can promote the metamorphosis of the wireworm larvae.

Summary translation

• Mehrjähriges Kleegras fördert Drahtwürmer. Deshalb: Bei Hinweisen auf Drahtwurmbefall auf den Anbau von mehrjährigem Kleegras verzichten.
• Nach dem Umbruch von Wiesen oder mehrjährigem Kleegras anfällige Kulturen wie Kartoffeln, Karotten, Zwiebeln oder Salat erst ab dem 3. oder, wenn möglich, sogar erst ab dem 4. Jahr anbauen.
• Generell fördert eine möglichst abwechslungsreiche Fruchtfolge verschiedene Nützlinge und lässt den Drahtwurmdruck sinken.
• Kein Anbau von Kartoffeln auf stark befallenen Flächen!
• Als überwinternde Gründüngung kommen Roggen, Ölrettich und Wicken in Frage. Ein tiefer Drahtwurmdruck konnte in Fruchtfolgen mit Erbsen und Lupinen beobachtet werden.
• Der Anbau von Leguminosen (Erbsen, Ackerbohnen, Buschbohnen) und Kruziferen (Weisskohl, Ölrettich, Senfarten) kann zur Reduktion der Drahtwurmschäden beitragen.
• Körnerleguminosen, aber auch Getreide, eignen sich besonders als Vorfrucht zu Kartoffeln.
• Bei der Abreife der Kartoffeln den Boden feucht halten.
• Kartoffeln zeitig ernten, da das Risiko eines Befalls steigt, je länger die Knollen im Boden sind.
• Quecke (Elymus repens) bekämpfen, da die Wurzeln die Entwicklung der Drahtwurmlarven fördern.

EPrint Type:Practice tool
What problem does the tool address?:Wireworms, the larvae of the click beetle, can cause severe damage to potatoes (and other susceptible crops). They burrow into the tubers and render them unsuitable to be marketed for consumption. Wireworms can also cause significant damage to sugar beet, cereal, maize, legumes and various vegetables. Usually, several types of wireworms with different characteristics are involved.
In spring and autumn, the wireworms are usually found in the top soil layers, eating crop roots. In adverse conditions, the larvae retreat to deeper soil layers. In spring, the adult beetles lay their eggs into the loose, humid soil of permanent meadows and temporary grassland as well as cereals, but not in root crops. The beetles undergo a metamorphosis during 3-5 years with up to 15 larval stages. The larvae cause the most damage in their second and third year of metamorphosis.
So far, a direct control for wireworms in or immediately before susceptible crops has not yet been achieved.
What solution does the tool offer?:Reduce the infestation risk by planning your crop rotation: By cultivating a one-year grass-clover ley and by placing the potatoes after the third or even fourth year of ploughing the ley, the intensity of infestation can be considerably lowered.
Country:Switzerland
Type of Practice Tool:Practice abstracts
Theme:Pest and disease control
Keywords:arable farming, crop rotation, crop species, pest control
Subjects: Crop husbandry > Crop combinations and interactions
Crop husbandry > Crop health, quality, protection
Crop husbandry > Production systems > Root crops
Research affiliation: Switzerland > FiBL - Research Institute of Organic Agriculture Switzerland > Communication
European Union > OK-Net Arable
Related Links:http://farmknowledge.org/index.php/search-for-ok-tools?v=31031
Project ID:oknet
Deposited By: Forschungsinstitut für biologischen Landbau, FiBL
ID Code:31031
Deposited On:24 May 2017 08:00
Last Modified:24 May 2017 08:16
Document Language:English, German/Deutsch
Status:Published

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