home    about    browse    search    latest    help 
Login | Create Account

Utilização de Flemingia macrophylla como adubo verde na produção orgânica de hortaliças em sistema de aléias.

Salmi, Alexandre Porto (2012) Utilização de Flemingia macrophylla como adubo verde na produção orgânica de hortaliças em sistema de aléias. [Use of Flemingia macrophylla as a green manure for vegetable production under alley cropping.] Masters thesis, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro , Instituto de Agronomia. .

[img]
Preview
PDF - Published Version - Portuguese/Portugues
2MB

Summary

Flemingia macrophylla e uma leguminosa arbustiva de origem asiatica, pouco explorada e utilizada no Brasil. A literatura destaca seu elevado potencial em diferentes sistemas agroflorestais em varias regioes tropicais do mundo. Este potencial tem sido demonstrado em nossas condicoes, tendo sido por isso escolhida esta especie para estudo. Dentre os objetivos deste estudo, destaca-se a avaliacao da rebrota de flemingia cultivada em faixas, a quantificacao da acumulacao de nitrogenio na parte aerea, bem como a avaliacao da dinamica de decomposicao de liberacao de nutrientes da folha, do caule e da combinacao de caule+folha. Para tanto, foi avaliada a capacidade da rebrota de flemingia apos cortes em diferentes alturas (0,0 m; 0,3 m; 0,6 m; 1,2 m do nivel do solo em plantas de um ano de idade. O tempo de avaliacao foi de dois anos, com a realizacao de nove cortes, onde quantificou-se a materia seca e os teores de nitrogênio da parte aerea de flemingia e parametros biometricos como altura, diametro do caule e numero de ramificacoes. Observou-se que a flemingia apresenta excelente capacidade em rebrotar: o corte a 1,2 m chegou a produzir 34 Mg MS ha’1, equivalendo a 804 kg N ha"1 e superando os demais tratamentos como o corte a 0,6 m de altura que chegou a produzir 29 Mg MS ha' 1 e acumulou 691 kg N ha'1; o corte a 0,3 m que produziu 18 Mg MS ha"1 acumulando cerca de 329 kg N ha’1 e por fim, o corte ao nivel do solo que produziu 16 Mg MS ha’1 com acumulo de 211 kg N ha'1. O tempo de meia vida (T1/2) da decomposicao foi de 91, 95 e 97 dias para folha, caule e caule+folha, respectivamente. Quanto a liberacao de nutrientes, observou-se tempo de meia vida (T1/2) para liberação de nitrogenio nas folhas de 116 dias, no caule de 102 dias e na relacao caule+folha, de 99 dias. A liberacao de N ocorreu de forma mais pronunciada ate os primeirosl5 dias. O T 1/2 para liberacao de fosforo na folha foi de 81 dias, para caule de 80 dias e para caule+folha de 67 dias. Os tres tratamentos apresentaram comportamento semelhante na liberacao de potassio, sendo que o T1/2 na liberacao de K para folha foi de 21 dias, de 40 dias para o caule e de 19 dias para caule+folha. Para calcio o T 1/2 para folha foi de 235 dias, para o caule de 163 dias e para caule+folha de 168 dias. Para o magnesio o T1/2 foi de 136 dias para folha, de 159 dias para caule e de 152 dias para caule+folha. A abundancia da fauna edafica mostrou-se intensa nas primeiras avaliacoes, onde o numero total de individuos por metro quadrado passou de 500, declinando nas coletas posteriores, provavelmente devido a escassez de alimento e nutrientes, diminuindo a possibilidade de habitat aos invertebrados.

Summary translation

Flemingia macrophylla is an underexploited shrubby legume of Asian origin. The literature highlights its high potential for different agroforestry systems in many tropical regions of the world. This potential has been shown under Brazilian conditions which led this study to be conducted. The present study focuses on the evaluation of the regrowth after nine sequential cuttings on flemingia. Biomass production and nitrogen accumulation was evaluated. The dynamics of nutrient release from decomposing leaves stems and stems + leaves were assessed. The evaluation of flemingia regrowth was performed after cutting at different heights from ground levei (0.0 m; 0.3 m; 0.6 m; 1.2m). The treatments were imposed on one year old plants. This trial lasted for two years, enough time to accomplish nine cuttings. Dry matter and nitrogen content of the shoots of flemingia, as well as biometric variables such as height, stem diameter, and number of branches were determined. The highest cutting height (1.2 m) maximized biomass production, at ali cutting dates. This same trend was observed for nitrogen accumulation. Up to 34 Mg DM ha"1 were measured in eight cuttings, at 1.2 m cutting height, the equivalent to 804 kg N ha'1, outperforming the 0.6 m cutting which yielded 29 Mg DM ha' 1 and 691 kg N ha'1; the 0.3 m cutting treatment yielded 18 Mg DM ha"1 and accumulated 329 kg N ha'1; finally, cutting at ground levei, yielded 16 Mg DM ha' 1 with accumulation of 211 kg N ha"1. Decomposition dynamics and nutrient release from the shoots of flemingia were also studied along with the composition of invertebrates present during the process. Litter bags containing three different flemingia parts were used: leaves, stems and stems + leaves. Bags were set in the field and collected over time to determine moisture and leveis of N, P, K, Ca and Mg. Invertebrate composition was determined by placing plant biomass in Berlese funnels installed in a closet set with lamps placed above, collected in jars located below the funnels and sorted under stereoscopic microscope. The half-life time (T1/2) of the decomposition was 91, 95 and 97 days for leaves, stems and stems + leaves, respectively. The nutrient release study indicated half-life (Ti/2) of 116 days for release of nitrogen for leaves, 102 days for stems and 99 days for stems + leaves. The release o f N was more pronounced on the first 15 days. The T1/2 for phosphorus was 81 days for leaves, 80 days for stems and 67 days for stems + leaves. The three cutting treatments showed similar behavior in potassium release, and T 1,2 on the release of K for 21 days for leaves, 40 days for stems and 19 days to stems + leaves. For calcium, T1/2 was 235 days for leaves, 163 days for stems and 168 days for stems + leaves. For magnesium T|/2was 136 days for leaves, 159 days for stems and 152 days for stems + leaves. Arthropod abundance was high in early evaluations, with total number o f individuais per square meter of 500, declining in later samplings, probably due to the scarcity of food and nutrients, decreasing the possibility of habitat for invertebrates

EPrint Type:Thesis
Keywords:Leguminosa, Rebrota, Liberação de nutriente. Legumes, Regrowth, Nutrient release.
Agrovoc keywords:
LanguageValueURI
EnglishLegumeshttp://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_4255
EnglishRegrowthhttp://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_32532
EnglishNutrient managementhttp://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_330697
EnglishFlemingia macrophyllahttp://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_36288
EnglishGreen manureshttp://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_3375
EnglishLegumeshttp://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_4255
Subjects: Crop husbandry > Production systems
Farming Systems
Crop husbandry > Production systems > Cereals, pulses and oilseeds
Farming Systems > Farm nutrient management
Research affiliation: Brazil > Other organizations
Deposited By: Santos, Ederson Luiz
ID Code:24950
Deposited On:17 Feb 2014 16:42
Last Modified:17 Feb 2014 16:42
Document Language:Portuguese/Portugues
Status:Published
Refereed:Peer-reviewed and accepted

Repository Staff Only: item control page