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Jordbrug, strukturelle koblinger og bæredygtighed

Noe, Egon and Alrøe, Hugo F. (2014) Jordbrug, strukturelle koblinger og bæredygtighed. [Agriculture, structural couplings and sustainability.] In: Harste, Gorm and Knudsen, Morten (Eds.) Systemteoretiske analyser – at anvende Luhmann. Nyt fra samfundsvidenskaberne. Samfundslitteratur, Frederiksberg, chapter 4, pp. 89-107.

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Summary

Artiklen analyserer udviklingen i landbruget med udgangspunkt i Luhmanns systemteori og med særlig fokus på begreberne om afkobling og strukturelle koblinger. I et stadigt mere komplekst samfund er reduktion (eller rettere udgrænsning) af kompleksitet en nødvendig men kontingent udvikling. I landbruget ser vi denne udvikling både i form af en uddifferentiering af semantikker og tilhørende funktionssystemer og i form af horisontale og vertikale specialiseringer og uddifferentieringer. De logiske konsekvenser heraf er for det første at de enkelte organisations- og funktionssystemers omverden (dvs. den verden de kan lade sig irritere af) bliver forenklet, og dermed sker der en række afkoblinger. For det andet, og som kompensation for denne udvikling, er det nødvendigt at udvikle nye strukturelle koblinger mellem disse systemer for at kompensere for uddifferentieringen.
En yderligere konsekvens af denne udvikling er, at der sker en række reaktioner i omgivelserne som begynder at irritere tilbage i andre former, og der opstår endnu flere specialiserede semantikker. De semantikker der er uddifferentieret som egentlige funktioner, søger at genintroducere irritationen af landbrugsbedrifterne via f.eks. lovgivne restriktioner eller i form af skatter og afgifter. I artiklen fokuserer vi analysen på andre og nye muligheder for strukturelle (gen)koblinger, med udgangspunkt i en række aktuelle tiltag og bevægelser; koblinger der kan bidrage til at genintroducere omgivelsernes irritation til systemerne. Vi skelner mellem tre former for strukturelle koblinger: 1) De strukturelle koblinger som landbrugsvirksomheden producerer for at genintroducere omgivelser til omverden, dog i reduceret form via de generaliserede medier som funktionssystemerne tilbyder. 2) Strukturelle koblinger mellem organisationer der kan håndtere andre dimensioner end blot pris og kvantitet. Her skelner vi mellem de medierede koblingsmuligheder som de generaliserede medier, som f.eks. Ø-mærket, tilbyder, og koblingsmuligheder i bindende men dynamiske samarbejdsaftaler i netværket, som afhænger af og giver mulighed for ko-evolution. 3) Anden ordens semantiske strukturelle koblinger af iagttagelser af iagttagelser, som f.eks. knytter sig til bæredygtighedssemantikken; semantikker der netop har deres styrke og udfordring ved at de forbliver ubestemte i deres form.
Analysen viser at Luhmanns begreb om strukturelle koblinger ikke kun er stærkt når det gælder om at analysere og forstå udviklingsprocesserne i jordbruget, men at dette begrebsapparat også kan danne grundlag for at arbejde konstruktivt med de udfordringer som uddifferentieringen producerer.

Summary translation

The article analyses the development in agriculture with a starting point in Luhmanns systems theory and with special focus on the concepts of decoupling and structural couplings. In a still more complex society reduction (or rather marginalisation) of complexity is a necessary but contingent development. In agriculture we see this development both in form of a differentiation of semantics and accompany-ing function systems and in form of horizontal and vertical specialisations and differentiations. The logical consequences of this are that, firstly, the umwelt of the individual organisation and function systems (that is, the world that they can be irritated by) are simplified, and thereby a range of decou-plings take place. Secondly, it is necessary to develop new structural couplings between these systems to compensate for the differentiation.
A further consequence of the development is that there is a number of reactions in the surrounding world which begin to irritate back in other forms, and more specialised semantics emerge. The seman-tics that are differentiated into actual functions seek to reintroduce irritations of the farm enterprises, for instance by way of regulatory restrictions or taxes and dues. The analysis in this article focuses on other and new options for structural (re)couplings, based on a range of real initiatives and develop-ments; couplings that can help reintroduce irritations from the surroundings to the systems. We distin-guish three forms of structural couplings: 1) Functional couplings to additional generalised perspectives or functionally differentiated systems, which farm enterprises produce to reintroduce a sensibility of their surroundings. 2) Structural couplings between organisations, which can handle other dimensions than price and quantity. Here we distinguish between possibilities for mediated couplings offered by generalised media such as the organic label, and possibilities for network couplings that depend on and provide options for co-evolution. 3) Second order structural couplings to polyocular semantics based on observations of observations, such as the sustainability semantic; semantics that have their strength and challenge in the fact that they remain in an indeterminate form.
The analysis shows that Luhmanns concept of structural couplings is not only a strong tool to analyse and understand development processes in agriculture, but also a basis for working actively to solve the challenges that differentiation produces.

EPrint Type:Book chapter
Subjects: Farming Systems
Food systems
Research affiliation: Denmark > Organic RDD 1 > MultiTrust
Denmark > AU - Aarhus University > Faculty of Science and Technology > Department of Agroecology
ISBN:978‑87‑7683‑045‑8
Deposited By: Alrøe, PhD Hugo Fjelsted
ID Code:24886
Deposited On:08 Jan 2014 09:26
Last Modified:26 Aug 2014 13:13
Document Language:Danish/Dansk
Status:Published
Refereed:Peer-reviewed and accepted
Additional Publishing Information:Contributing to MultiTrust Deliverable 3.6.2

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