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Manejo agroecológico da cultura do inhame: produtividade, qualidade, controle de nematóides e manchas foliares.

Garrido, Marlon da Silva (2005) Manejo agroecológico da cultura do inhame: produtividade, qualidade, controle de nematóides e manchas foliares. [Agroecological yam crop management: productivity, quality, control of nematodes and leaf spot.] Masters thesis, Universidade Federal da Bahia , CURSO DE MESTRADO EM CIÊNCIAS AGRÁRIAS. .

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Summary

A agroecologia preza os principios da preservacao e ampliacao da biodiversidade dos agroecossistemas, os quais constituem as bases para se atingir a sustentabilidade do ecossistema. A cultura do inhame (Dioscorea cayennensis Lam.) vem se destacando no Nordeste brasileiro como uma alternativa promissora para os pequenos e medios produtores da regiao. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar sistemas de manejo agroecologico da cultura do inhame, com a utilizacao de adubos verdes, e seus efeitos nas características produtivas, na taxa de retorno financeiro e nas principais doencas associadas a esta cultura. Foram montados tres experimentos com os seguintes adubos verdes: crotalaria (Crotalaria juncea) (CJ), guandu (Cajanus cajan) (CC) e a combinacao de ambos (CJ + CC). Em condicoes in \/itro, avaliou-se o efeito nematostatico e nematicida dos extratos da parte aerea fresca e seca de CJ, CC e CJ + CC. No segundo trabalho, conduzido em casa de vegetacao, avaliou-se o efeito da incorporacao ao solo da parte aerea de CJ, CC e CJ + CC, na infectividade de Scutellonema bradys, utilizando-se o tomateiro como planta hospedeira. E, em condicoes de campo, avaliou-se o efeito do cultivo e incorporacao ao solo de CJ, CC e CJ + CC, nas entrelinhas do plantio do inhame, na qualidade e produtividade das tuberas, no indice de retorno financeiro da cultura, no manejo de fitonematoides e na severidade da queima das folhas. Os extratos da materia fresca de CJ e CC apresentaram efeito nematicida de 100% e 40% a S. bradys, respectivamente. A incorporacao de CJ ao solo inibiu a infectividade de S. bradys em mudas de tomateiro. O plantio de CJ e CJ + CC, nas entrelinhas do inhame, demonstrou ser eficiente no manejo de S. bradys e de Rotylenchulus reniformis. O sistema de cultivo de inhame com CC na entrelinhas proporcionou maior produtividade total de tuberas (33,13 t/ha), produtividade de tuberas padrao (22,96 t/ha), tuberas comerciais (32,24 t/ha) e o maior lucro operacional (US$5.707,88). O modelo Logistico e o que melhor se ajustou a curva de progresso da mancha foliar causada pela Curvularia eragrostidis, nas condicoes do Reconcavo da Bahia. As taxas de progresso dessa mancha foliar sao similares para os sistemas de cultivo de inhame com adubos verdes. O cultivo convencional de inhame apresenta taxa de progresso da doenca 37% superior ao cultivo com adubos verdes. Existe baixa correlacao entre a area abaixo da curva de progresso da doenca (AACPD) para as manchas foliares causadas por C. eragrostidis, Phyllosticta sp. e o conjunto das lesoes causadas por ambos os patogenos, em relacao ao peso, diametro e comprimento das tuberas de inhame.

Summary translation

Agroecology is based on the preservation and increase of agroecossystems biodiversity, which constitutes the base to achieve sustentability. The yam (Dioscorea cayennensis Lam.) crop has been pointed out in the Northeastern region of Brazil, as a promising crop for small and average farmers. This work had the objective of evaluating agroecological management of yam plantations, with the utilization of green manure, and its effect on the productive characteristics, in the financial return index, and in the major diseases associated with this crop. Tree experiments were carried out with the following leguminous
plants as green manure: crotalaria (Crotalaria juncea) (CJ), pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) (CC), and the combination of both (CJ + CC). Under in vitro conditions, the first experiment evaluated the nematostactic and nematicide effect of extracts from fresh and dry matter of aerial part of CJ, CC, and CJ + CC. The second experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions, to evaluate the effect of soil incorporation of CJ, CC, and CJ + CC in the infectivity of Scutellonema bradys, using tomato plants as the host plant. The third experiment was carried out in the field, to evaluate the effect of intercropping and incorporation of CJ, CC, and CJ + CC to soil, in the quality, yield, financial return index, management of yam parasitic nematodes, and severity of leaf spots. The extracts from fresh matter of CJ and CC presented a nematicide effect of 100% and 40% to S. bradys, respectively. Soil incorporation of CJ inhibited the infectivity of S. bradys in tomato seedlings. Planting CJ and CJ + CC between the yam planting lines, was shown to be an
effective method for the management of S. bradys and Rotylenchulus reniformis. The yam crop system with CC between the yam planting lines promoted the highest total tuber yield (33.13 t/ha), yield of tubers with quality for exportation (22.96 t/ha), commercial tubers (32.24 t/ha), and the highest operational profit (US$5,707.88). Logistic was the model that best described the progress of yam leaf spot, for the Reconcavo region of Bahia. Rates of disease progress were similar for the crop systems with green manure. The conventional crop system presented a disease progression index of 37 % superior to that of the green
manure crop systems. A low correlation was observed between the area under the disease progress curves for the leaf spot caused by C. eragrostidis, Phyllosticta sp., and the combination of leaf spots caused by both pathogens, with regard to the yam tuberweight, diameter, and length.

EPrint Type:Thesis
Keywords:Scutellonema bradys, Dioscorea cayennensis, Crotalaria juncea, Cajanus cajan, Casca preta, Mancha foliar. Scutellonema bradys, Dioscorea cayennensis, Crotalaria juncea, Cajanus cajan, Dry rot, Leaf spot diseases
Agrovoc keywords:
LanguageValueURI
EnglishScutellonema bradyshttp://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_32244
EnglishDioscorea cayenensishttp://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_2291
EnglishCrotalaria junceahttp://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_1978
EnglishCajanus cajanhttp://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_1185
Englishagroecologyhttp://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_92381
EnglishCrop managementhttp://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_16094
Subjects: Farming Systems > Farm economics
Farming Systems > Social aspects
Environmental aspects > Biodiversity and ecosystem services
Farming Systems > Farm nutrient management
Research affiliation: Brazil > Other organizations
Deposited By: Santos, Ederson Luiz
ID Code:24843
Deposited On:13 Feb 2014 13:18
Last Modified:13 Feb 2014 13:18
Document Language:Portuguese/Portugues
Status:Published
Refereed:Peer-reviewed and accepted

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