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Soil biochemistry and microbial activity in vineyards under conventional and organic management at Northeast Brazil.

Freitas, Nicácio de Oliveira; Yano-Melo, Adriana Mayumi; Silva, Fábio Sérgio Barbosa da; Melo, Natoniel Franklin de and Maia, Leonor Costa (2011) Soil biochemistry and microbial activity in vineyards under conventional and organic management at Northeast Brazil. [Atividade bioquímica e microbiológica do solo em videiras sob manejo orgânico e convencional no Nordeste do Brasil.] Scientia Agricola, 68, pp. 223-229.

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Online at: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-90162011000200013&nrm=iso

Summary

The São Francisco Submedium Valley is located at the Brazilian semiarid region and is an important center for irrigated fruit growing. This region is responsible for 97% of the national exportation of table grapes, including seedless grapes. Based on the fact that orgThe São Francisco Submedium Valley is located at the Brazilian semiarid region and is an important center for irrigated fruit growing. This region is responsible for 97% of the national exportation of table grapes, including seedless grapes. Based on the fact that organic fertilization can improve soil quality, we compared the effects of conventional and organic soil management on microbial activity and mycorrhization of seedless grape crops. We measured glomerospores number, most probable number (MPN) of propagules, richness of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) species, AMF root colonization, EE-BRSP production, carbon microbial biomass (C-MB), microbial respiration, fluorescein diacetate hydrolytic activity (FDA) and metabolic coefficient (qCO2). The organic management led to an increase in all variables with the exception of EE-BRSP and qCO2. Mycorrhizal colonization increased from 4.7% in conventional crops to 15.9% in organic crops. Spore number ranged from 4.1 to 12.4 per 50 g-1 soil in both management systems. The most probable number of AMF propagules increased from 79 cm-3 soil in the conventional system to 110 cm-3 soil in the organic system. Microbial carbon, CO2 emission, and FDA activity were increased by 100 to 200% in the organic crop. Thirteen species of AMF were identified, the majority in the organic cultivation system. Acaulospora excavata, Entrophospora infrequens, Glomus sp.3 and Scutellospora sp. were found only in the organically managed crop. S. gregaria was found only in the conventional crop. Organically managed vineyards increased mycorrhization and general soil microbial activity.

Summary translation

O Vale do Submédio São Francisco é localizado na região do semi-árido brasileiro, sendo um importante centro da fruticultura irrigada, responsável por 97% da exportação nacional de uvas de mesa, incluindo as uvas sem sementes. Baseado no fato de que a fertilização orgânica pode melhorar a qualidade do solo, comparou-se o efeito do manejo orgânico e convencional sobre a atividade microbiana do solo e o estado micotrófico de videiras produtoras de uvas sem sementes. Foi avaliado o número de glomerosporos, número mais provável de propágulos (NMP), riqueza de espécies de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA), colonização de FMA, produção de PSRG-FE, carbono da biomassa microbiana (C-BM), respiração microbiana, atividade de hidrólise do diacetato de fluoresceína (FDA) e quociente metabólico (qCO2). O manejo orgânico aumentou todas as variáveis, com exceção da PSRG-FE e do qCO2. A colonização micorrízica foi 4.7% no cultivo convencional e 15.9% no orgânico. O número de esporos variou de 4.1 a 12.4 por 50 g-1 solo em ambos os sistemas de manejo. O NMP de propágulos de FMA foi de 79 cm-3 solo no sistema convencional e 110 cm-3 solo no sistema orgânico. O carbono microbiano, a emissão de CO2 e a atividade do FDA apresentaram incrementos de 100 a 200% no cultivo orgânico. Treze espécies de FMA foram identificadas, a maioria no sistema orgânico. Acaulospora excavata, Entrophospora infrequens, Glomus sp.3 e Scutellospora sp. foram registradas apenas na cultura orgânica; S. gregaria foi exclusiva no cultivo convencional. O cultivo orgânico dos parreirais favorece a micorrização e a atividade microbiana do solo.

EPrint Type:Journal paper
Keywords:Vitis vinifera L., Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Soil microbial activity, Agrovoc code: 33561 Sustainable agriculture, 14191 Semiarid climate, 8283 Vitis vinifera, 36163 Mycorrhizal infection, 3145 Fungi, 36567 Soil microbiota, 15203 Vineyards, 910 Biochemistry
Subjects: Soil
Research affiliation: Brazil > Other organizations
ISSN:0103-9016
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-90162011000200013
Deposited By: Bernardo, Priscila
ID Code:20415
Deposited On:14 Oct 2012 16:48
Last Modified:14 Oct 2012 16:48
Document Language:English
Status:Published
Refereed:Peer-reviewed and accepted

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