Forslund, Anita; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias N.; Markussen, Bo and Dalsgaard, Anders (2011) Leaching of human pathogens in repacked soil lysimeters and contamination of potato tubers under subsurface drip irrigation in Denmark. Water Research, 45 (15), pp. 4367-4380.
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The risk for contamination of potatoes and groundwater through subsurface drip irrigation with low quality water was explored in 30 large-scale lysimeters containing repacked coarse sand and sandy loam soils. The human pathogens, Salmonella Senftenberg, Campylobacter jejuni and E. coli O157:H7, and the virus indicator Salmonella Typhimurium bacteriophage 28B, were added weekly through irrigation tubes for one month with low irrigation rates (8 mm per week). In the following six months lysimeters were irrigated with groundwater free of pathogens. Two weeks after irrigation was started, phage 28B was detected in low concentrations (2 pfu ml-1) in leachate from both sandy loam soil and coarse sand lysimeters. After 27 days, phage 28B continued to be present in similar concentrations in leachate from lysimeters containing coarse sand, while no phage were found in lysimeters with sandy loam soil. The added bacterial pathogens were not found in any leachate samples during the entire study period of 212 days. Under the study conditions with repacked soil, limited macropores and low water velocity, bacterial pathogens seemed to be retained in the soil matrix and died-off before leaching to groundwater. However, viruses may leach to groundwater and represent a health risk as for some viruses only few virus particles are needed to cause human disease. The bacterial pathogens and the phage 28B were found on the potato samples harvested just after the application of microbial tracers was terminated. The findings of bacterial pathogens and phage 28 on all potato samples suggest that the main risk associated with subsurface drip irrigation with low quality water is faecal contamination of root crops, in particular those consumed raw.
|EPrint Type:||Journal paper|
|Keywords:||Humans pathogens, Leaching, Contaminated water, Potatoes, Subsurface irrigation, Repacked soil lysimeters, PathOrganic|
|Subjects:|| Food systems > Food security, food quality and human health|
Crop husbandry > Irrigation and drainage
|Research affiliation:|| European Union > CORE Organic > PathOrganic|
Denmark > KU - University of Copenhagen > KU-LIFE - Faculty of Life Sciences
|Related Links:||http://www.safir4eu.org, http://www.icrofs.org/coreorganic/pathorganic.html|
|Deposited By:||Forslund, Dr. A|
|Deposited On:||01 Feb 2012 09:49|
|Last Modified:||01 Feb 2012 09:49|
|Refereed:||Peer-reviewed and accepted|
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