Huber, Beate and Schmid, Otto (2009) Standards and Regulations. In: Willer, Helga and Kilcher, Lukas (Eds.) The World of Organic Agriculture - Statistics and Emerging Trends 2009. FiBL, IFOAM and ITC, Frick, Bonn and Geneva, chapter 3, pp. 65-74.
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Farmers' associations developed the first standards for organic production in the middle of the last century. The first international standards were published by IFOAM in 1980. The first governmental regulations were introduced by some European countries, including Austria and France, in the 1980s. In 1991, the EU passed the organic EU Regulation 2092/91 and set standards with major implications for international trade; they covered not only production standards, but standards for labelling and inspection as well. Various countries in Europe, Latin America and Asia - including Japan - introduced legislation in the 1990s. In 1999, the Codex Alimentarius approved the first guidelines for organic plant production, which were amended with requirements for livestock production in 2001. In the new millennium, most major economies have established a regulation for organic production. On January 1, 2009, the completely revised Regulation on Organic Production EU Regulation (EC) 834/2007 and its implementation rules came into force.
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