home    about    browse    search    latest    help 
Login | Create Account

Optimere egenkontrollen for primærproduktion til råmælksost

Dahl, Majbrit Wigø (2003) Optimere egenkontrollen for primærproduktion til råmælksost. [A HACCP based food safety programme for the production of raw milk for processing og cheese.] KVL, Department of Dairy and Food Science.

[img] Source file
26Kb

Summary

Problematikken omkring råmælksoste er, at det ikke er tilladt at producere dem i Danmark, men kun at importere dem. Det skyldes de danske myndigheders fortolkning af det EU-direktiv (92/46/EØF af 16. juni 1992), som fastsætter reglerne omkring produktion og behandling af rå mælk. De danske myndigheder mener, at konsum af råmælksoste giver øget sundhedsrisiko og derfor ikke bør produceres, da det ikke er muligt at opretholde en tilfredsstillende hygiejne uden at varmebehandle mælken. Dette har givet anledning til debat gennem tiden, da nogle mejerister og kendte kokke mener, at råmælksoste smager bedre end pasteuriserede oste og derfor kan give levnedsmiddelindustrien et kvalitetsløft. Formålet med opgaven er derfor at undersøge, om og hvordan det er muligt at styre produktionen af den rå mælk, således at sundhedsrisiko forbundet med konsum bliver mere acceptabel.
Gennem et litteraturstudium bestemmes de kontamineringskilder, som antages at have betydning for mikrofloraen i rå mælk. Desuden gennemgås den lovgivning, som er gældende for produktionen af mælk, som sælges til mejerier. Ud fra egne observationer på gård X sammenholdt med resultaterne fra litteraturstudiet, udarbejdes et egenkontrolprogram for mælkeproduktionen. Gård X er en økologisk bedrift med 130 malkekøer, som er knyttet til gårdmejeri X, der behandler gårdens mælk. Mælkeproduktionens risikofaktorer frem til opbevaringstanken defineres, de kritiske styringspunkter (CCP) bestemmes, og der udarbejdes procedurer for disse.
Det ugentlige kimtal på gård X viste sig at svinge mellem 3.000 og 12.000 cfu pr. ml rå mælk over en periode på 8 uger i 2003. De kontamineringskilder, som antages at have størst betydning for mikrofloraen i den rå mælk, er den personlige hygiejne, antallet af sygdomsfri smittebærere og syge dyr, forekomsten og typen af mastitis, anvendelse af sprøjtemidler og gødning på de marker, som bruges til kvægfoder, kvaliteten af ensilagen, vandkvaliteten, renheden af kvæget, som igen er påvirket af opstaldningen og strøelsestypen, pattebehandlingen inden malkningen, formalkningen, framalkningen samt rengøringen af procesudstyret (malkemaskiner, rørsystem og opbevaringstank). Af disse betydende kontamineringskilder er det kun kvaliteten af ensilagen, vandkvaliteten, malkningen og især pattebahandlingen, formalkningen og framalkningen samt rengøringen af procesudstyret, der kan betragtes som CCP'er. Det vurderes dog ikke at være muligt at sikre, at den rå mælk ikke indeholder patogen bakterier eller andre sundhedsfarer ved at etablere et egenkontrolprogram, men det er muligt at mindske tilstedeværelsen.

Summary translation

Background. In Denmark it is not legal to produce cheeses from raw milk, but we do import them from other EU-countries. This is a result of the way the Danish authorities interpret the EU-directive (92/46/EØF of 16th June 1992) that concerns the production and treatment of raw milk. The opinion of the Danish authorities is that consumption of raw milk cheeses causes an increased health risk and therefore should not be produced in Denmark. Their argument is that it is not possible to maintain a satisfactory hygiene level without heat treatment of the raw milk. This has been debated for some time as some dairy professionals as well as celebrity chefs believe that raw milk cheeses taste better than pasteurized cheeses and thus can add a quality lift to the food industry. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to examine if and how it is possible to control the production of raw milk so that the health risk connected with the consumption becomes more acceptable.
Materials & methods. Through a literature survey the factors of importance to the raw milk flora as well as the legislations that apply to the production of milk sold to dairies were studied. From 3 observation days on a dairy farm and the results of the literature study, a HACCP based food safety programme for the raw milk production was developed. The hazards of the raw milk production as well as the critical control points (CCP) were identified and for the latter procedures were compiled.
Results. The weekly aerobic, mesophilic plate count on farm X varies between 3,000 and 12,000 cfu per ml raw milk over a period of 8 weeks. According to the literature survey, the factors that were found to have the most influence on the raw milk flora were the personal hygiene of the milker, the number of disease free carriers and ill animals, the prevalence and type of mastitis, the use of chemicals and fertilizer on fields used for cattle feed, the quality of the silage, the water quality, the cleanliness of the cattle which again were found to be affected by the stalling and type of bedding, the pre-milking, the treatment of teats before milking, off-milking as well as the cleaning of process equipment (milking machines, pipelines and depository tank). Of these important factors it was only the quality of the silage, the water quality, the milking and specifically the teat treatment, the pre- and off-milking as well as the cleaning of process equipment that could be regarded as CCPs. However, developing a food safety programme does not ensure that the raw milk is free from pathogenic bacteria or other hazards affecting human health, but it seems to be possible to reduce the risk.

EPrint Type:Report
Subjects: Food systems > Food security, food quality and human health
Animal husbandry > Production systems > Dairy cattle
Research affiliation: Denmark > DARCOF II (2000-2005) > II.11 (RAWMICHEESE) Production of organic raw milk cheese and content of phyto-estrogens
Deposited By: Hansen, Dr. Tina Beck
ID Code:1592
Deposited On:22 Oct 2004
Last Modified:12 Apr 2010 07:28
Document Language:Danish - Dansk
Status:Published
Refereed:Not peer-reviewed
Additional Publishing Information:Dr. Susanne Knøchel and Dr. Tina Beck Hansen have been the supervisors of this bachelor project. For interested readers the bachelor report in its whole is available at KVL.

Repository Staff Only: item control page