Organic seed in the Nordic countries

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Archived at http://orgprints.org/00001031

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Edited by Anders Borgen (DK), Ann-Marie Dock Gustavsson (S), Juha Kieksi (F), Torgun Johnsen (N), Ragni Andersson (S) and Rasmus Ørnberg Eriksen (DK)


CONTENT

 

CONTENT                                                                                     2

 

INTRODUCTION                                                                          4

 

SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS                                                   5

 

BACKGROUND                                                                              7

 

OBJECTIVES                                                                                 8

 

STATE OF AFFAIRS FOR ORGANIC SEED PRODUCTION

IN THE NORDIC COUNTRIES                                                                  8

 

  DENMARK.....................................................................................................................8

    SWEDEN......................................................................................................................12

    NORWAY.....................................................................................................................15

    FINLAND (EXCEPT ALAND ISLANDS)..................................................................16

 

DISCUSSION                                 17

 

  DATABASE…………………………………………………………………………………………………18

  SEED HEALTH.............................................................................................................................................19

    PRODUCTION OF SEED POTATOES........................................................................................................20

    VEGETABLES..............................................................................................................................................21

    PRODUCTION OF ORGANIC SEED ON CONVERSION AREAS?.........................................................21

    ORGANIC OR NON-ORGANIC SEED AND VEGETATIVE MATERIALS FOR PROPAGATION......22

    VARIETY TESTING AND TRANS-NATIONAL TRADE OF SEED........................................................23

    LEGAL STATUS OF PARTLY ORGANIC SEED MIXTURES.................................................................24

    OTHER QUALITY ASPECTS......................................................................................................................25

    POSSIBLE FUTURE DEVELOPMENT IN BALTIC COUNTRIES...........................................................25

 

REFERENCES                                  26

 

APPENDIX 1: PRODUCTION AND SUPPLY OF ORGANIC SEED IN

THE NORDIC COUNTRIES                            27

 

   DENMARK: PRODUCTION AND SUPPLY OF DEREALS AND LEGUMES IN DENMARK...........…27

    SWEDEN: PRODUCTION OF ORGANIC CEREAL SEED IN SWEDEN 1999-2002 (AREA BASIS).…31

    FINLAND: ORGANIC SEED PRODUCTION 1996-2001 (AREA BASIS).............................................…34

    NORWAY PRODUCTION OF ORGANIC SEEDS IN NORWAY 1999-2002 (AREA BASIS)............….36

 

APPENDIX 2: THRESHOLDS FOR SEED BORNE DISEASES       38

 

APPENDIX 3: CONCEPT DEFINITIONS AND NAMES OF SEED BORNE

   DISEASES                             40

 

 

 

APPENDIX 4: ADDRESSES                            47

 

    DENMARK...................................................................................................................................................47

    SWEDEN.......................................................................................................................................................47

    NORWAY.....................................................................................................................................................48

    FINLAND.....................................................................................................................................................48

 

APPENDIX 5: MINUTES FROM THE WORKSHOP ON ORGANIC SEED
HELD IN COPENHAGEN 17/1 – 2002                            51

 

APPENDIX 6: ARTICLE 6 IN: COUNCIL REGULATION (EEC) NO 2092/91

OF 24 JUNE 1991 ON ORGANIC PRODUCTION OF AGRICULTURAL

PRODUCTS AND INDICATIONS REFERRING THERETO ON

AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS AND FOODSTUFFS,                      55

 

 

 

 

 


 

INTRODUCTION

This report concerns the development of the production of organic seed in organic farming in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The project started in spring 2001 and was completed in autumn 2002. The project was executed by Ann-Marie Dock Gustavsson (project leader, The Swedish Board of Agriculture), Anders Borgen (project secretary, Scanagri, Denmark), Torgun Johnsen (Norwegian Agricultural Inspection Service), Juha Kieksi (Plant Protection Inspection Centre, Finland), Ragni Andersson (The Swedish Board of Agriculture) and Rasmus Ørnberg Eriksen (The Danish Plant Directorate). Several other persons have been involved in the work.

 

In January 2002 a workshop was arranged in Copenhagen. Minutes from the workshop and a list of participants are given in Appendix 5.

Iceland, Greenland, Faeroe Islands (Færøerne) and Aland Islands (Åland) have not taken part in this project, but we hope the report shall be of interest to all Nordic countries and regions. The editors of this report have continuously had contact with reference groups or/and persons in their countries.

 

This report deals with production and use of organic seed in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The seed dealt with are “cereals and pulses”, “clover and grasses”, “other fodder crops”, potatoes and to some extent oil seed, sugar beets, vegetables and vegetative propagating material. Vegetative plant material, e.g. fruit trees, is not included in this report.

 

The Nordic countries have each formulated goals for the development of organic production. When organic seed is required, it must be possible to produce healthy organic seed within organic farming. Production of healthy organic seed claims both indirect and direct methods to control pests and the Nordic countries have already been partly successful in developing methods for producing healthy organic seed. Biological and technological knowledge in producing healthy organic seed can be a competitive advantage for organic food production in the Nordic countries.

 

The Nordic countries can be divided in different climatic regions. A locally adapted variety in Denmark can also be adapted for the southern part of Sweden. Norway and Finland can develop varieties suitable for the northern part of Sweden, and vice versa. As natural/geographical boundaries are not the same as national borders, the work with development of organic seed is Inter-Nordic and international by nature. Sustainable use of national resources, such as arable land, calls for international cooperation. Inter-Nordic cooperation in production of organic seed ought to increase the availability of adapted varieties for different regions in the Nordic countries.

 

 

 

 

SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Production of organic seed is developing and increasing in the Nordic countries (Appendix 1). Harmonized regulations are essential for the development of this market. There is a need for special actions to promote an increased production of organic seed of some crops, especially potatoes and sugar beets. There is also a need for special actions in order to reduce the number of rejected organic seed lots to a minimum and thereby reducing the area needed for production of organic seed. The project group from the Nordic countries recommends:

 

1.     Availability and suitability

the possibility to grant derogations according to the Council Regulation 2092/91 to use non-organic seed in case or shortage of organic seed should be prolonged if:

 

1)      – there is no variety within the desired species on the market.

2)      – the varieties available in the area do not fit the purpose of production.

3)      – there is seed of an appropriate variety registered, BUT the company does not deliver to the area of the user.

4)      – the seed available is infected/contaminated with seed borne diseases above the recommended threshold levels in the area of production.

WE SUGGESTS:

2.       Database

all competent authorities for organic agriculture make or have some one else make an updated national list of available seed lots in the country in a database.

 

3.        Propagation

organic seed should be used whenever available in relevant variety and generation of multiplication, i.e. organic seed shall be preferred also for seed propagation.

 

4.      Seed health thresholds

      national quality criteria including criteria for seed health for untreated seed relevant for different regions and crops should be defined. Organic seed shall be preferred only, if organic seed meeting these standards are available.

public funds should be allocated for trials to define thresholds for such health standards. 

each country should use harmonised seed health testing methods such as ISTA-rules.   

 

5.                  Variety testing

field trials relevant for recommendation of varieties for organic farming must be planned in cooperation with neighbouring regions (or/and countries) in order to improve the possibility to select varieties marketable in more than one country or region.

 

The seed producers select varieties able to be marketed in neighbouring regions in cases where there is a risk of overproduction in one region. This will improve the possibility to supply neighbouring regions.

 

6.        Potatoes

focus is put on potato production by intensified advisory services, research and derogation practice not allowing the use of non-organic seed potatoes if organic seed potatoes of the same or an equal variety are available. We recommend that exemptions to use non-organic seed potatoes are administered on a species level unless for special purposes (e.g. starch production, early production for consumption).

 

7.        Vegetables

           there is an intensified communication between seed companies, organic advisors, researchers and organic vegetable producers in order to ensure that the seed, produced by the seed producers, actually reflects the variety and quality requirements demanded by the users.

 

8.        non-organic seed treated with pesticides

the possibility to use seed treated with pesticides not listed in Annex IIb shall not be prolonged in the Council Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91.

 


 

BACKGROUND

The ”Council Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91 of 24 June 1991 on organic production of agricultural products and indications referring thereto on agricultural products and foodstuffs” (Appendix 6) apply in all Nordic countries. This regulation states that seed used for organic production must be produced according to the organic standards (Article 6.1c). If such seed is not available, the competent authority in a member state may allow untreated seed to be used until 31  December 2003 (Article 6.3a). If untreated seed is not available, seed treated with pesticides can be used until December 2003 (Article 6.3a). It is up to the competent authority to interpret the concept of ‘availability’, and this has been done differently in the different Nordic countries.

 

Organically produced seed will normally be more expensive than non-organic seed. The organic farmer therefore has an economical advantage in buying non-organic seed, and organic seed will often be rejected if the organic farmer is free to use non-organic seed. For reasons described later in this report, the production of organic seed is not too profitable. Organic seed may therefore not be produced if the seed companies are not sure to be able to sell the seed with a surplus price needed to cover the expenses of the organic production.

             

The rules for the production and marketing of seed and other propagating plant materials in the EU are governed by the Council Directives on the marketing of seed and propagating material*. These directives are implemented into national legislation. This legislation sets the minimum requirements on the quality of the seed, and states that the seed must fulfil these minimum requirements in order to be certified and subsequently marketed. Only officially certified seed can be marketed. The minimum requirements include germination capacity, purity and the absence of a few seed-borne diseases. The national requirements for certification of seed material vary from country to country, but the requirement stated in the Council Directive sets the minimum demands for import of seed from other countries.

             

Regarding seed borne diseases, the legislation sets minimum threshold values for a few diseases such as ergot (Claviceps purpurea). For most diseases the Council Directive states that “Harmful organisms, which reduce the usefulness of the seed shall be at the lowest possible level”. The Member States may in their national seed legislation impose stricter disease thresholds on seed produced in their own territory, as well as other stricter quality requirements, when implementing the Directives. In addition to the standards set in the legislation there are some national recommendations, which differ from country to country (Appendix 2).

 

* The basic legislation on the marketing of seeds and propagating materials are the following

Council Directives; 66/401/EEC on the marketing of fodder plant seed, 66/402/EEC on the marketing of cereal seed, 68/193/EEC on the marketing of material for the vegetative propagation of the vine, 92/33/EEC on the marketing of vegetable propagating and planting material other than seed, 92/34/EEC on the marketing of propagating and planting material of fruit plants, 98/56/EC on the marketing of propagating material of ornamental plants, 2002/54/EC on the marketing of beet seed, 2002/55/EC on the marketing of vegetable seed, 2002/56/EC on the marketing of seed potatoes and 2002/57/EC on the marketing of seed of oil and fibre. In addition there also is the Council Directive 1999/105/EC on the marketing of forest reproductive material.

             

In addition to these quality requirements each variety must be officially approved by being listed on a National Catalogue of Plant Varieties or in the Common Catalogue of Plant Varieties before marketing of the seed.

 

From 1 January 2004, the competent authorities in the Member States can no longer allow the organic farmers to use non-organic seed in cases of shortage of organic seed with a general national derogation. However, derogation may be possible also after 31 December 2003.

 

According to Article 6.4 in Council Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91 the Commission will review the requirements for seed and other propagating material in the Regulation, at the latest by 31 December 2002. In the light of this review the Commission may submit proposals for amending the regulation within this area.

 

 

OBJECTIVES

The aim of this project is to give an overview of the rules for production of organic seed in the Nordic countries including the general certification rules for seed, and to describe the production of organic seed in the Nordic countries. The aim is also to formulate recommendations to facilitate production and availability of appropriate seed, i.e. healthy seed of adapted varieties, in the Nordic countries.

The aim of this report is to contribute to an Inter-Nordic discussion among the relevant stakeholders in order to optimise the production and use of high quality organic seed in the Nordic countries, and to deliver inputs for the revision of the regulation of organic production. In this way we hope to contribute to secure availability of healthy organic seed of adapted varieties for organic farming in the Nordic countries.

 

 

 

STATE OF ART FOR ORGANIC SEED PRODUCTION IN THE NORDIC COUNTRIES

 

Denmark

Background

The Plant Directorate under the Ministry of Agriculture has been the only official inspection and certification authority of organic production in Denmark since 1987. Økologisk Landsforening (former Landsforeningen Økologisk Jordbrug (LØJ)) and Demeterforbundet has carried out supplementary private inspection and unauthorised certification with additional standards. However, concerning the regulation of the requirement of organic seed there has been no differences between the private and the state inspections and certification. Therefore only the state certification and inspection of organic production will be covered in this chapter.

             

Since the first law on organic agriculture in Denmark in 1987, organic farmers have been requested to use organic seed if these were available. The inspectors have administrated according to this request and controlled the seed bags and bills in comparison to knowledge about marketed organic seed.

             

In the Danish inspection of organic production it has been a tradition to focus on what is controllable. The request of organic seed and definition of availability has therefore been controlled by the date of (ordering and) delivery, since the date of sowing in practice cannot be controlled by the inspectors. Consequently, in the beginning, the Plant Directorate made lists on organic seed, which were available in Denmark, and these lists were sent to the organic farmers. If a seed lot was sold out or new seed lots were made available, an updated list was made. When controlling the date of delivery, the inspectors could see if non-organic seed were delivered at a time, where organic seed of this species were available. Non-organic seed can only be bought in periods where organic seed is not available. It is not permitted to store non-organic seed to be used in a following season.

             

            During the 1990s the production of organic seed increased, and the updating of the list of organic seed became more frequent. It was therefore no longer possible to update the list and send it to all farmers, as this would be very time-consuming and expensive. In 1998 the list was therefore no longer sent to the farmers by every update, but instead the list was put on the Internet (http://www.lr.dk/planteavl/informationsserier/oekologiskudsaed/master.htm). The farmers´ advisory service was updating the list, since they had already the relevant network with the seed companies, farmers and inspection body.

 

Now, if a seed company does not inform the advisory service about an organic seed lot, it will not be put on the list, and the farmers do therefore not have to buy this organic seed, but can buy non-organic seed, as long as he does not have knowledge about an organic seed lot outside the list. The seed companies therefore have an interest in informing what they want to market, since they are not likely to be able to sell their organic seed if it is not on the list. The list is updated within the relevant sowing periods for each species. Ordering non-organic seed outside these periods or use of non-organic seed in the periods if appropriate organic seed is available, always needs an individual exemption based on written application.

             

In the Council Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91, the administration of the use of seed is regulated on a variety level. This means that the farmer is in principle only obliged to use organic seed if the same variety is available in organic quality. If the farmer uses another variety, he is in principle free to use non-organic seed. However, for cereals, legumes and ley Denmark has administrated the regulation in a way that non-organic seed could be used only if the same kind of variety was not available in organic quality, i.e. varieties with equivalent characteristics. A farmer can therefore only use non-organic seed if he can demonstrate that the organic seed available are not appropriate for the purpose. Now, this has been formalized by a list of appropriate varieties. The content of this list is basically the same as the Danish National Catalogue of Plant Varieties, but other varieties can be incorporated as well if they are tested in Denmark or in a similar climatic region by an independent authority showing yield or other important characters not below the standard of the list (http://www.pdir.dk/medd_eks/okv3_00.htm).

 

Cereals and pulses

Production of organic cereal seed started in 1990 by Carl Rasmussen a/s and Per Grupe (now Mørdrupgård Korn). Since then the production has increased almost every year and more companies have included organic seed in their programs. In the beginning the major problem for the production was to find farmers willing to produce seed. Since there are many dairy cows in Denmark, the demand for fodder is huge, and the organic cereal prices relatively high. Many farmers therefore considered it to be more profitable to produce cereals for fodder or consumption than for seed purpose. For the last couple of years the surplus price for the production of cereal seed has been about 50 Dkr/hkg on top of the organic price for the crop, which is about 160-200 Dkr/hkg. With this surplus price it has been profitable for farmers to produce seed for propagation, if the crop is approved.

             

In 1990 several biodynamic farmers using home saved seed had an outbreak of stinking smut (Tilletia caries), which put focus on the risk of seed borne diseases in organic cereals. Since then, the advisory service has intensively recommended to assess all organic seed lots for seed borne diseases, and most companies have done so. However, no laws or standards require assessment, and some times organic or untreated non-organic seed have been marketed for the organic farmers without assessment, or being marketed even though the assessment showed unacceptable infection by pathogens. In 2000 the organic farmers and the organic seed companies made an agreement that only seed lots, which by a seed analysis have shown acceptable levels of seed pathogens, will be put on the official seed list for organic seed. The farmers therefore do not have to buy organic seed, if these are infected by seed pathogens above the agreed threshold levels.

                     

The seed borne diseases relevant for cereals and pulses and the agreed threshold values are listed in Appendix 2. The scientific base for these values is limited. A research project running until 2005 funded by FØJO will examine the threshold levels.

                     

The control of seed borne diseases in Denmark is based exclusively on discarding infected seed lots. The environmental authority in Denmark has not yet approved any biological seed treatments (e.g. Cedomon). This means that a huge proportion of the propagated seed is discarded.

                     

The production of organic cereal seed and estimated cover of the demand is shown in Appendix 1, which indicates that production is increasing, and that the production for the cropping season 2001-2002 can meet the demand in several crops. There is no tradition in Denmark to save cereal seed from season to season, and the figures therefore cover the actual supply.

 

Biodiversity is a key issue in organic farming, and the use of variety mixtures is an obvious tool in organic farming. However, the use of variety mixtures has been impeded by the rules for seed certification, which require that only certain varieties can be mixed. A minimum of three varieties shall be included, and the varieties must be equal in straw length, maturation, etc. In the case of organic farming, the seed companies often only have few varieties, and if they include several varieties in their programme, they will normally be different in order to cover different demands from the market. In 2001 the supply of organic cereals reached a level, where one company (DLG) could market a variety mixture.

 

Clover and grasses

Denmark has a huge non-organic grass seed production, and for the last five years these companies have also been involved in organic production. The companies will start exporting organic seed once the domestic market is covered. This will probably be relevant for perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and red clover (Trifolium pratense).

                     

Most grass and clover seed in modern agriculture is sold as mixtures. Not all ingredients are available as organic quality and it is a huge problem for the farmers if they shall make the mixtures themselves, based on which species and varieties are available in organic quality. It has therefore been allowed to produce mixtures including seed which is both organic and non-organic. Hence, it is allowed to produce and market mixtures for the organic farmers with non-organic ingredients in Denmark if organic seed of the relevant species is not available. There is a deadline 15th January for the information of organic seed. The mixtures may be sold with non-organic ingredients at a later time and they are produced in small quantities. When these mixtures are sold out or new organic seed becomes available, a new mixture is produced. The proposals for the first mixtures are made in the beginning of January on basis of the organic seed available at that time. The specific mixtures are marketed all over Denmark as A-mixtures, and organic farmers are not allowed to use the same kind of mixture with a higher content of non-organic ingredients as long as the A-mixture is still available. If this is all sold, B-mixtures will be produced. This will normally contain less organic ingredients.

                     

The main technical problem in organic ley production has been the clover beetles (Apion spp.). Especially the production of white clover seed (Trifolium repens) suffers because of this pest. Several research projects are focusing on this aspect. Ley seed production is more risky than the production of cereals and fodder and the conversion to seed production needs expertise and in some cases investment in new machinery. Even though seed prices are relatively good, the willingness of the farmers to produce seed is a bottleneck for increasing the production of many crops.

 

Other fodder crops

Organic maize seed is imported. Organic beet seed for fodder and sugar production are not produced or imported into Denmark. Hence non-organic seed is used instead. The non-organic seed is produced in the south of Europe.

 

Potatoes

In Denmark the production of organic seed potatoes started about 10 years ago, and for the past eight years the market for the common varieties has been covered, and non-organic seed potatoes has generally not been used.

                     

The major problem in organic potato production is late blight (Phytophthora infestans), which can be transmitted by seed potatoes. The main treatment in order to reduce crop damage from attacks of late blight has been removal of the canopy when the first symptoms are observed. This practice prevents spreading of the disease to other plants and to the tubers. Also selection of early varieties with ability to produce a reasonable tuber size before late blight develops, and pre-germination of tubers are frequently used as control measures in order to prevent epidemics. Potassium-olat (in the product Zence used also as insect soap) is used in some Nordic countries to minimize late blight, but this product is not approved by the environmental authorities in Denmark and can therefore not be used here.

 

The non-organic practice of spraying with fungicides reduces the epidemic of late blight, but will not totally prevent infection of the tubers. Organic seed potatoes may therefore be less infected by late blight, but this has never been investigated. In recent years the late blight epidemics have started earlier than before, likely because epidemics start from oospores resting in the soil.

                     

The seed health regulation sets a limit of 1% tubers visually infected by late blight. This limit does not prevent the start of an epidemic of late blight.

                     

In non-organic seed potatoes production, viruses are controlled by the control of aphids with insecticides. In organic production these diseases are controlled by early harvest.

 

Danish organic seed potato producers believe that they can increase production and thereby supply the neighbouring countries with organic seed potatoes.

 

Vegetables

Companies operating internationally dominate the market for vegetable seed. There is therefore no direct national link between production and consumption. Seed being produced in Denmark may be sold abroad, and most organic vegetable seed sold in Denmark is produced elsewhere. Major crops in Denmark are onions and carrots.

                     

Most crops (species) are available in organic quality, but often farmers prefer special varieties, which are not available organically. The Plant Directorate accepts that farmers use non-organic seed if there are no appropriate variety available within the species and if the specific variety is not available as organic seed.

                     

Onions are normally grown directly from seed or from transplanted seed onions. The production of organic seed onion started in 1990 and since 1995 the organic production has covered the demand and there has been no use of non-organic seed onion except for individual exemptions.

 

Vegetative propagating materials

Vegetative propagating materials of some species are available in organic quality.

A few companies produce trees for organic forestry and orchards. The production is based on non-organic seed sown and grown in organic certified soils in fields or pots.

 

 

 

Sweden

Regulation

The Swedish Board of Agriculture (Jordbruksverket) regulates the organic sector in Sweden, with KRAV and Demeterförbundet as the inspecting and certifying bodies. Farmers who receive the environmental subsidy for organic farming have to be controlled by KRAV or Demeterförbundet if they want to market their products as organic. The seed control and certification is carried out by the Swedish Seed Testing and Certification Institute (Statens Utsädeskontroll, SUK).

                     

For all organic farmers, organic seed must be used if available on the market. The Swedish Board of Agriculture makes lists of species where organic seed is available and the requirement therefore is relevant. This list is updated at least once in every sowing season. To be put on the list of cereals, the seed producers have to inform the Swedish Board of Agriculture. The Swedish Board of Agriculture has established reference-groups on organic seed production for four branches; cereals and pulses, vegetables, potatoes and “other crops” i.e. oilseed, grass/clover and sugar beets. These reference groups include seed producers, seed consumers, control bodies and authorities. In these groups agreements on the state of affairs are discussed. The fourth group, “other crops”, has during 2002 concentrated their discussions on production and mixtures of ley seed (clover and grass).

                     

Whether the farmers have to use organic seed or not is regulated by the date of sowing. Non-organic seed may therefore be bought at any time, but only used in periods where organic seed is not available. The organic farmers in Sweden are requested to register all actions in the field including date of sowing.

 

It is not possible to produce organic seed on fields in conversion to organic production, but it is possible to sow a crop on a field in conversion, if the seed is harvested after the conversion is completed. KRAV, the largest certifying and inspecting body in Sweden, allows also harvest of organic seed on fields not finally converted.

 

Cereals and pulses

Organic seed of most cereals is produced, but quantities have so far been insufficient to supply the market. However, production is increasing every year and spring wheat, winter wheat, triticale and winter rye are today produced in nearly sufficient quantities.

                     

In addition to the thresholds for infection by seed borne diseases set in the legislation,  the Swedish Seed Testing and Certification Institute (SUK) has made recommendations for the maximum level of infection by some seed borne pathogens. The recommendations are mandatory, and are listed in Appendix 2. If a seed lot is exceeding the threshold levels the seed of some species may be treated with Cedomon (a biological seed-treatment product named after the soil bacteria species Pseudomonas chlororaphis). About 50% of the organic spring cereals are treated with Cedomon.

 

Clover and grasses

The organic seed production of clover and grass from 1999-2001 is given in Appendix 1. Even though the organic ley seed production has increased during this period the ley seed has not yet reached the market as seed from a single variety as ley seed normally is used and sold in mixtures. So far there has not been enough supply of organic ley seed of any of the species or varieties used for such mixtures. According to Council Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91 (Art. 5.10) an organic ingredient must not be present together with the same ingredient from non-organic farming, in a product bearing indications referring to organic farming. For the moment the Swedish Board of Agriculture discusses the possibility of making ley seed mixtures with organic and non-organic ingredients. It would then be allowed to mix organic red clover seed with non-organic timothy seed in a ley seed mixture for the market. An ingredient could be defined on variety level. It would then even be possible to mix organic seed of one red clover variety with non-organic seed of another red clover variety. A working group at the Swedish Board of Agriculture is working with a voluntary system of regulating organic ley seed mixtures to facilitate the marketing and use of organically produced ley seed.

 

Seed companies usually produce the seed mixtures in large amounts. Since most farmers prefer to buy mixtures ready for sowing, a clear regulation of how these mixtures may be composed must be formulated. This is especially important in a situation with a lack of seed. Another important discussion is how the mixtures should be composed both on species and variety level.

 

Potatoes

There are two main problems in the production of organic seed potato in Sweden. The first problem is late blight (Phytophthora infestans). Especially in the southern part of Sweden the problems with late blight have increased due to several reasons. Late blight is not only a problem for the organic seed potato producer; it is also a main problem for the producer of organic potatoes for consumption. There are today less than 1000 ha of organic potato production in Sweden and 30-40 ha of organic potatoes for starch production. The production of organic seed potatoes has decreased but will increase again during 2003.

 

The other main problem is that there are big differences between different varieties of potatoes. The consumer also has different demands on a variety. For this reason, the derogation has been on variety level which gives marketing problems for the producers of organic potato seed. In Appendix 1 the small and decreasing production of organic seed of potatoes is shown.

 

Vegetables

As in other countries, companies operating internationally dominate the market for vegetable seed. There is no direct national link between production and consumption. There are big differences between varieties, and the opinion of the Swedish organic growers is that it should be possible to give derogations on variety level, if needed.

 

An investigation among consumers and producers of vegetable seed during 2000 (Ängmo, 2000) showed that there is a general insecurity towards the possibilities of providing the producers with organic seed already in 2004. The general plan is to continue the search for better varieties for the market of organic seed. The investigation shows that it is the producer’s own experiences that decides the choice of variety. The most important quality aspect of a variety is taste and output. F1 hybrids are preferred to the older open pollinated varieties by most organic growers. 

 

Vegetative propagating materials

There is one gardener in Sweden who produces organic vegetative propagating materials of some varieties of wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca), raspberry and black current. The problem is that there is hardly anyone buying these plants, so the producer is planning to cease his production of organic vegetative propagating materials. Until 2001 he produced enough plants of organic vegetative propagating materials of strawberries (seven varieties) but this production is finished. The reason is that there were too few buyers of the material.

 

Other species

2001 was the first year that organic seed of oil seed rape was produced in Sweden. One single variety of winter oil seed rape was produced 2001 (Nepal, 12 ha). However, the company decided not to market the seed. Production of oil seed does not need much area, but there is no production of organic oil seed in Sweden during 2002.

 

Organic seed is not produced for other species of agricultural crops such as sugar beet, even though there is an organic line in the production of sugar.  As in Denmark non-organic beet seed is used.

 

Norway

Regulation

Even standing outside the European Union, the Council Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91 on organic production applies in Norway through the EEA-agreement (European Economic Area). Norwegian Agriculture Inspection Service (Landbrukstilsynet) is the competent authority and DEBIO is authorised as the only inspection and certification body in Norway.

 

Based on the limited supply of organic seed in Norway, the Ministry of Agriculture has until now given a general derogation for the use of non-organic untreated seed. In 2001 the Norwegian Agriculture Inspection Service established directions for use of non-organic propagating material when organic seed is not available. Before use of non-organic seed, the farmer has to ask the company if organic seed is available or if the company can get hold of such seed. If the farmer has used non-organic seed, he has to get a confirmation from the company that organic seed were not possible to get hold on. The control body, Debio, will check this confirmation at the yearly inspection.

 

In 2001 Norwegian Agriculture Inspection Service appointed a committee that shall give advise of which species and varieties should be produced in Norway to cover the demand of organic produced seed. This committee has had special meetings during 2002 concentrating on cereals, potatoes and ley seed respectively and is also planning a meeting on vegetative propagating material. This committee will aim at formulating advices or manuals for organic seed production. The committee shall also follow the supply and the demand of organic seed and propose measures to improve the supply of organic seed if necessary.

 

Cereals

Some organic spring cereal seed (barley, wheat, oats) was produced in 2001. The seed companies also have organic winter rye for sale (produced in 2000). Organic spring barley seed were produced in 2000, but because of low germination caused by Fusarium spp it could not be used.

 

Clover and grasses

Production of organic grass seed started in 1998. The marketing of organic seed has been difficult since organic seed is expensive, and suffers in competition with non-organic seed. This situation changed in 2001 when the farmers were forced to ask for and buy organic seed if it was available. In 2001 there has been some seed production of timothy, meadow fescue, red clover and alsike clover. In an “organic mixture” of ley seed there may be 30% non-organic seed as a maximum.

 

Other fodder crops

Organic swede seed (Brassica napus var. rapifera) of the varieties Vige and Bangholm Olsgård are produced and cover the demand.

 

Potatoes

Some organic seed potatoes have been produced. Until now it has been more profitable for the farmers to market the organic potatoes for consumption than as seed potatoes. From 2002 there will be given a support of 3 NOK per kg organic seed potatoes. A small project on organic seed potatoes started in 2001 and will be followed up during 2002 and 2003. The idea is to produce seed potatoes in an area where there are no problems with late blight.

 

Vegetables

One farmer has produced organic seed of onion, common cabbage and sugar pea. Seed of onion and cabbage have been certified, but it is very difficult to succeed with sugar pea. In most years the germination is too low because of Ascochyta spp. and Botrytis cinerea. This problem is also a problem in non-organic production of propagating material of sugar pea.

 

For most vegetables Norway is depending on import. Also organic seed is imported.

 

Vegetative propagating materials

Until now there has been no production of organic vegetative propagating material in Norway. To get material of berries for sale in 2004, the production should have started in 2002. There is an attempt to start production of organic onion sets in 2003.

 

 

Finland

Regulation

The approval of a farm for entry in the register of organic production is decided by the regional Rural Departments of Employment and Economic Development Centres (Employment and Economic Development Centres form a joint regional service organisation of three ministries.) The 15 Rural Departments are thus regional units of rural administration, working under the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. The Plant Production Inspection Centre (KTTK) keeps a register of all organic farmers and co-ordinates the inspection work of the Rural Departments.

                     

Finland has implemented the request for the use of organic seed. Seed delivered in a period, where organic seed was not available, may be used in other periods, even if organic seed is available at this later time.

                     

KTTK makes updated lists of seed available in organic quality (1 September, 1 January, 15 February, and after that every week until the end of May). At the yearly farm inspection, the farmer has to document that non-organic seed were ordered and delivered only in periods when organic seed of an appropriate variety were not available. If one variety is available in organic quality, the farmer cannot use non-organic seed of another variety of the same crop, if the varieties have similar characteristics. To use non-organic seed of species, of which varieties are available, the organic farmers need a license from a certifying body.

                     

In Finland, there is a general derogation for seed produced on conversion areas.            

Finland has implemented an interpretation of the request on the use of organic seed, which is stricter than in the other countries, since organic propagators have to use organic seed also for propagation if seed of this generation is available in organic quality. In the other countries, propagators are free to use non-organic seed for propagation, even if organic seed of the same variety are available.

 

Cereals

In Finland, the threshold values are not only recommendations for seed producers, but have a legal status. This means that seed cannot be certified if threshold values for seed pathogens are exceeded for special species.

 

Clover and grasses

Finland has a considerable production of organic grass and clover. Seed for pastures is mainly sold as mixtures. Mixtures can contain non-organic seed if such ingredients are not available in organic quality. There is enough production of red clover and timothy seed to cover the need in Finland.

 

Potatoes

Only one producer has a small production of organic seed potatoes. The main problem of organic seed potato production is late blight (Phytophthora infestans).

 

Vegetables

All organic vegetable seed is imported, some organic and some non-organic.

 

Others

Finland has a production of organic ornamental crops. The regulation of these follows the regulation of plants for fodder and human consumption. The production is based on non-organic seed.

 

Vegetative propagating materials

Vegetative propagating materials of annual plants can only be used in organic quality. Of onion sets there are quite enough production of garlic. Non-organic transplant of perennial plants can be used if organic is not available. Transplants of strawberry are very well available.

 

 

DISCUSSION

 

According to the Council Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91 seed and vegetative plant material for organic farming shall be organic. If organic seed and vegetative propagating material are not available, non-organic untreated may be used. These requirements are supported by IFOAM (International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements) basic standards.

 

Organic seed and vegetative propagating materials are generally more expensive to produce than non-organic. Organic farmers will therefore in general prefer the cheaper non-organic seed rather than the more expensive organic seed if the controlling body does not enforce the request on the use of organic seed. Organic seed producers can therefore not be sure to sell the produced organic seed, if the controlling body does not require use of such material. On the other hand, if the certifying body requires use of organic propagating material, and quantities are limited, the seed producers may in theory set any price they want, since the organic farmer has to buy the seed.

 

The organic seed sector has developed very differently in the Nordic countries. In Denmark and Finland, the majority of the organic area with field crops including cereals is sown with organic seed while in Norway most seed is non-organic. The production of organic seed in Sweden is greater than in Norway, but relatively smaller than in Denmark and Finland, but it is increasing significantly (Appendix 1). There are several explanations of these differences. Denmark and Finland have relatively larger organic sectors than Norway and especially Denmark has a more homogeneous climate and topography than both Norway and Sweden. The market for a organically produced seed of a certain variety is therefore larger and easier to handle in Denmark. However, it is also of crucial significance that the use of organic seed has had a higher priority by the Danish and Finnish inspection authorities, and has been enforced for almost 10 years, while in Norway a general derogation has been given until year 2000. A thorough enforcement of the request for use of organic seed by the inspection and certifying bodies seems to be crucial for the development of the organic seed sector.

 

Huge differences are seen between the countries with regard to the degree of optimism to solve technical problems. It is the general opinion in several countries that seed potatoes can hardly be made organically, even though this has been done satisfactorily in Denmark for many years. These differences cannot be explained by differences in climatic conditions. There seems in general to be a need for further exchange of information and experience between the Nordic countries, not only between researchers, but indeed also between farmers, advisors and authorities.

 

Database

An early establishment of a database on available organic seed has promoted the development of the seed sector in Denmark and Finland. A rapid development of the organic seed sector in Sweden was seen when the Swedish Board of Agriculture more thoroughly enforced the request to use organic seed and distributed a list of varieties where exemptions could be given. It is concluded, that an establishment of this kind of database or updated lists is a necessary tool for the inspection bodies to control the legal use of non-organic seed in cases of shortage of organic seed. It can therefore be recommended that the establishment of, or access to, such databases should be mandatory for all certification and inspection bodies.

 

It has been discussed whether EU should have one central database covering all member states, or whether it would be better with several databases governed by the competent authority in each member state. A common private database already exists on the Internet in form of the website http://www.organicxseeds.com. IFOAM recommends OrganicXseed to be recognized as the European database on organic seed, and it must be admitted that a central database could solve some problems related to cross border trade of organic seed. However, it is questionable whether it will work in practice. The experience from the Nordic databases is that it is quite time consuming to update the database. This update can only be optimal in cases where the editor of the database is in contact with the seed companies on a regular base in the relevant periods. This is better done by regional offices. A central database would therefore be best if it is based on local/regional/national databases. We therefore conclude that the first step should be the establishment of databases in each country and that the next step could be to link the databases to a common database.

 

 

Seed health

Diseases included in the seed certification standards

Organic seed on the market has to be certified by both the seed certification system and the organic inspecting system, but there are no special requirements for the quality of the organic seed. The Council directives on seed states that the infection level of seed borne diseases in general must be as low as possible. With few exceptions no thresholds are stated. However in Sweden, Norway and Denmark, a few diseases such as loose smut in barley and oats are regulated by national certification standards. Other relevant diseases such as stinking smut in wheat and leaf stripe in barley are only regulated with recommendations (Appendix 2). In Finland all diseases considered relevant are included in the seed certification standards for seed produced inside Finland, whereas they for imported seed only serve as recommendations.

 

There is a need for national criteria for derogation considering “availability” and “suitability” of organic seed lots. The national criteria considering suitability should be based on biological knowledge giving seed health thresholds and variety testing in relevant climatic regions. There is also a need of trans-national communication and information about these national criteria.

 

Production of healthy organic seed - possible strategies and treatments

Non-organic seed of a majority of crops is often treated with pesticides to control fungal diseases and for some crops even insects, in order to keep the seed borne diseases on the lowest possible level as required by the seed certification standards. Organic seed may not be treated with such substances. The question therefore arises, whether organic seed can be certified if infected by seed borne diseases not mentioned in the requirements for seed certification – and the answer on this question is today yes. On the one hand it can be argued that almost all fungal diseases can be controlled even in organic agriculture by hot water treatment even though this may be expensive and difficult. Infected seed is therefore not treated in the best possible way in relation to diseases. On the other hand, hot water treatment is only practiced in some small seed crops, and equipment is in practice not available for cereal and legume production. Cedomon can be used in Sweden, Norway and Finland to control the majority of diseases in spring barley, and it is approved for organic production.

                     

All Nordic countries have established recommended inoculum thresholds as a strategy to control seed borne diseases (Appendix 2). These thresholds have been developed for non-organic farming, partly to ensure seed treatment only according to need (Norway), partly as demanded treatment when infections reach the threshold levels (Sweden and Finland) and partly as recommended levels at which pesticides can safely be excluded (Denmark). A few of the seed borne diseases are included in the national seed certification standards, and then mainly with levels equivalent to these inoculum thresholds. However, it differs in the national standards in the different Nordic countries which diseases are included and at which levels. The question therefore arises, whether organic seed from one country, following the standards and threshold levels for seed borne diseases in this country, legally can be sold in another country if the threshold level is exceeded in that country – and the answer on this question is today yes. In Finland and Sweden it is formulated in the seed certification standards that the threshold levels only apply to the domestic production but the other countries have no formulation on this subject. Thus, a seed lot infected with leaf stripe produced in another country may legally be purchased for example in Finland since the Finnish thresholds only apply for seed produced in Finland.

                     

A reason for different threshold levels in the Nordic countries can be the use of different non-accredited seed health testing methods. To solve this problem it is important to use harmonised testing methods such as ISTA-rules (International Seed Testing Association).

                     

Some seed treatments are approved in some countries but not in others, e.g. Cedomon (Pseudomonas chlororaphis produced by BioAgri) is approved in Norway, Finland and Sweden, but not in Denmark. The question arises whether seed treated with Cedomon can be used in Denmark if the treatment is conducted in Sweden, but not if it is treated inside Denmark – and the answer on this question is today yes. In Germany and The Netherlands ‘Tillecur’ and other amendments based on mustard and other plant products can be used against seed borne diseases like common bunt, but these products are not listed in Annex IIb of the Council Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91 and can therefore not be used according to the interpretation in the Nordic countries. As the market develops, international trade of seed is likely to increase for some crops, and this problem will be more relevant. There is therefore a need for harmonised standards for the use of seed treatment in organic seed.

                     

Varieties resistant to seed borne diseases, like stinking smut (Tilletia caries) in wheat and leaf stripe (Pyrenophora graminea) in barley exist, and could contribute to solve the problems with these diseases, but organic farmers have no incitement to buy them if susceptible varieties with higher yield potential or other important quality aspects are available. For example the smut resistant wheat variety Stava could not be sold when marketed in Denmark in 1998-99 in competition with the susceptible varieties Hereward, which had a better baking quality, and the fodder variety Hussar, which had a higher yield. Both varieties are also earlier in maturation. The problems with seed borne diseases are mainly a problem for the seed company and the seed producer, but the farmer buying the seed has no interest in the resistance, unless he later will use it for home saved seed. Also the knowledge about the resistance in the different varieties is limited. The varieties on the Danish list of varieties are tested for stinking smut and leaf stripe in a research project. There is a need for coordinated testing of resistance against seed borne diseases in the Nordic countries to the benefit of both farmers, seed producers and breeders.

 

Production of seed potatoes

The production of organic seed potatoes is considered as a major problem because of problems with late blight. Late blight is carried with the seed potatoes, but the threshold level for late blight is so high that it will not prevent epidemics to occur. There is no evidence that organic seed potatoes are more infected than non-organic seed potatoes. It makes therefore no difference for the organic producer whether he uses organic or non-organic seed potatoes in respect to late blight.

 

The development of potato production in Denmark differs radically from the other Nordic countries. In Denmark organic seed potatoes have covered the demand for a decade, while the other Nordic countries only have insignificant productions. The main difference seems to be the derogation practice, where the Danish authorities have had a very strict view on the use of non-organic seed potatoes in combination with some very enthusiastic producers of seed potatoes. Danish seed potatoes are in general viewed on a species level grouped in appropriate varieties. Derogations are only given in individual cases, and the organic farmer has to prove to the inspector that the varieties available in organic quality are not adequate for the purpose of his production. In Sweden, derogations have been given on a variety level, i.e. the organic farmers were free to use conventional seed potatoes if this variety was not available as organic.

 

                       

Vegetables

In vegetables, the choice of variety is governed by quality aspects of the harvested product like taste, quantity, shelf life etc. Resistance to ensure seed health or general plant health during seed production will normally have a trade off effect on other parameters, and will therefore not be preferred by the vegetable producer. The varieties demanded by the consumer (and therefore the vegetable producer) is therefore normally very different from the varieties produced by the organic seed companies. Especially in the Nordic situation, where almost all vegetable seed for climatic reasons are produced abroad, and the communication between seed producer and consumer is difficult. The production of seed of the varieties actually used is the key obstacle for the use of organic seed in the vegetable sector. There is an urgent demand for improved cooperation and communication between vegetable producers and seed producers. The vegetable producers may for economical reasons not give the use of organic seed high priority, as this has only limited impact of the marketability of the product. The responsibility for the promotion of organic seed production and use therefore lay in the hands of the seed producers, certification bodies, advisory services and organisations promoting the organic principles. None of these bodies can solve the problem alone.

 

In 2002, a new NMR-project entitled “Establishment of an interactive information database for organic seed and varieties suitable for vegetable crop production” was started. The project will be finished by the end of 2004.

 

Production of organic seed on conversion areas?

The use of organic seed is required for all fields grown organically, both converted fields and fields in conversion. In cases of rapid conversion rates, the area for seed production on converted fields may be too small for the need of seed production. In Sweden this is further relevant, since organic seed must be used also on farms receiving environmental subsidy, even though these farms cannot produce organic certified crops. According to the Council  Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91, organic plant products should be produced on basis of seed from fields, which follow the requirements in Annex I (and Annex II) of the regulation. Annex I and Annex II deal with production methods. However, also areas under conversion follow the requirements in Annex I and Annex II as do the Swedish farms receiving environmental subsidy even though the production on these areas is not yet certified organic. The regulation does not specifically say that the area for production of organic seed should be certified organic, but only that the requirements in Annex I and Annex II should be followed. It is a question of interpretation whether production of organic seed can be made on converted fields, and some disagreement exists about this. In Finland the competent authority has allowed production of organic seed on fields in conversion to organic production, even though the Commission has interpreted the regulation in a stricter sense saying that organic seed can only be produced on certified organic fields. KRAV in Sweden accepts production of seed in fields in conversion, even though the competent authority in Sweden has not made a final interpretation of this regulation. In Denmark organic seed can only be produces on fully converted areas.

 

If seed for organic farming can be produced in fields in conversion to organic production, the fully converted organic seed growers would meet competition from conversion production. The organic seed production is still small, and introducing yet another category of seed (e.g. conversion seed) would not solve the problem concerning lack of organic seed. Production of seed for organic farming in fields in conversion should therefore only be allowed in cases of severe shortage of organic seed. Often this is not known at the time of field planning, so in reality no production of seed should be allowed on areas under conversion. If the organic seed is sold out, the farmer can always ask for a derogation to use his own seed.

 

A couple of years ago there was a discussion in the European Commission about an example presented by Denmark, concerning the production of organic vegetative production material of strawberries. The outcome of this discussion was that it will take 4½ years for the producer before he can market his strawberry plants as organic. First the parcel has to be converted (for two years) and then the mother plants can be planted. After two seasons organic strawberry plants, harvested from these mother plants, may be marketed as organic. This is not an acceptable conversion period. Organic production is based on principles of self-sufficiency. Hence a dilemma exists between the request of self-sufficiency during conversion. The same dilemma exists in the fodder production. Most organic standards give priority to home produced fodder even under conversion where only conversion fodder is produced. The same could be implemented for seed production in a way that home produced seed can be used equal to organic seed during conversion.

 

Sweden has recently asked the Commission to raise this issue for discussion. The Swedish proposal is to change the text in the regulation in order to make clear that the production of organic seed and organic vegetative reproduction material may be started during the conversion period but it must be harvested on fully converted area. Since there is not yet enough supply of organic seed and organic vegetative reproduction material on the common market and in order to improve self sufficiency in the organic production, it could be an option to permit that production of organic seed and organic vegetative reproduction material may be harvested on conversion areas and used only on the farm where it is produced.

 

Organic or non-organic seed and vegetative materials for propagation

Organic production has to be grown from organic seed if such are available. However, according to Council Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91, organic seed can be produced from non-organic seed even if organic seed of this generation (e.g. C1 for most cereals) is available. Thus, only for production of other purposes than seed, organic seed should be used. There is therefore no incitement to produce the early seed generations organically, since they will have to compete with non-organic seed that normally have a lower price. Finland and Denmark has formulated a stricter formulation than described in the EU regulation.

 

In Finland organic seed must always be preferred if available, not only for production of organic products for sale as fodder, human consumption etc., but also when producing seed for sowing. Implementing the Finnish regulation in other countries will enhance the production of organic seed in more than one generation, and will solve other problems as well.

 

According to Art. 6. 2 (b) in Council Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91, organic seed production implies that the mother plant has been produced according to the organic production method for at least one generation. For vegetative reproductive material the criterion is at least two seasons. Accordingly, there is no requirement for the use of organic propagating material used for the production of organic seed/vegetative reproduction material.

 

Most organic seed producers use non-organic seed for organic seed production. If the organic seed does not fulfil the general requirements for seed certification, there should be some possibility to market the product as organic feed or food, even though organic seed was not used. Sweden has asked the Commission for a solution, and the Commission is now (August 2002) working on that.

                     

In Finland the situation is different. In Finland, farmers should always use organic seed if available. There are therefore no special prerequisite for the seed production, and seed is therefore still organic if discarded as certified seed.

 

A farmer is allowed to use non-organic seed for seed production also if he is producing seed only for  himself outside the seed certification scheme. Such home saved seed is difficult for the organic inspector to control, and especially the organic status of the seed, if not used as seed, is a problem.

 

 

Variety testing and trans-national trade of seed

Organic farmers in one country may use non-organic seed because of a lack of supply, even if the neighbouring country has an overproduction of organic seed. The only way to solve this problem seems to be exchange of information about production volumes in order to improve conditions for import and export of organic seed material. If there is overproduction in one country, the seed should be exported to other countries. This calls for production of varieties marketable in more than one country. Hence, there is also a need for coordination of variety trials, so that the varieties produced in one country also could be tested in the other climatic regions.

 

It may be a problem if seed producers do not know which varieties the farmers want. There is a need for continuously testing of varieties coordinated with neighbouring countries with similar climatic conditions. It would also be very useful to introduce some kind of coordination of the variety tests between seed producers, organic farmers and the advisory service and research stations.

 

There is a special need to evaluate seed mixtures of ley seed, since there is a difference in opinion between researchers, seed companies and advisors as to the optimal composition of mixtures under different conditions, especially in Sweden. As the seed companies decide on the composition of the mixtures, it violates the freedom of the farmer to decide which mixture he is able to choose.

 

Organic agriculture is based on principles such as self-sufficiency, closed cycles, transparency and autonomy. Home-saved seed and, if possible home bred seed, is therefore in line with the basic principles of organic agriculture, while commercial seed production is favoured by the seed regulation and certification practice and used by the majority of the organic farmers. There is a need to discuss the principles of organic agriculture when considering the organic seed regulation.

 

Legal status of partly organic seed mixtures

Article 5.1 in the Council Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91 of organic production methods very clearly points out the criteria for the marketing of organic food products. According to Article 5.3 food product cannot be marketed as organic if it contains more the 5% non-organic ingredients. Certified seed is sold for the purpose of sowing and is therefore not defined as food. Therefore, most ley seed in the Nordic countries can legally be sold in mixtures consisting of both organic and non-organic seed, even though the amounts of non-organic ingredients exceed 5%. Mixtures are also often composed in a way, where the same species occur of both organic and non-organic quality, even when this violates Article 5.10 saying, that it is not allowed to market a product as organic if an ingredient is present in both organic and conventional quality. There is an urgent need to legalise the use of mixtures of organic and non-organic seed especially in ley production. However, the same standards cannot be implemented in all member states at the same time when marketing ley seed mixtures, as long as the registration in databases of the availability of organic seed is still handled by national bodies. If this system should be allowed in the whole of EU, different levels of organic seed must be accepted, as the availability of organic seed differs in each country (/region).

 

Mixtures containing both organic and non-organic seed can be composed of different amounts of seed of each species. Denmark is a relatively homogeneous region in respect to climatic and production systems. This country has therefore only few available mixtures, and the system is regulated in agreement between the seed companies, the advisory service and the inspection body according to a principle aiming at spreading the organic seed into all the mixtures. In Sweden, there is no general agreement between the advisors, farmers and seed companies concerning composition of the mixtures. However, there are some developments planned for the season 2003. The aim is to produce a number of mixtures for all regions in Sweden. The problem has been how to make these mixtures out of small quantities of few varieties. Seeing each variety as a separate ingredient has given an opportunity to make mixtures with seed of some varieties organic and some non-organic. This would decrease the farmers possibility to choose a special mixture but he could add other species than those included in the mixture.

 

 

There are advantages related to the use of seed mixtures compared to monoculture not only in ley seed, but also in other crops like cereals and pulses. A mixture of exclusively organic seed of barley varieties has been marketed in Denmark in year 2002. To compose a purely organic variety mixture, it is needed to have 3-4 organic varieties with similar characteristics in respect to straw length, earliness etc. (which in practice would have to come from the same seed company). As the organic seed market is still small, it is not common that the same seed company has 3-4 varieties with similar characteristics in sufficient quantities in organic quality. This fact hinders the promotion of biodiversity and the benefit of the farmer. There could be a possibility to market partly organic variety mixtures, also in other crops, based on the same principles as used for composition of partly organic ley seed mixtures. However, this has never been tried.

 

Other quality aspects

Organically produced cereal seed has often smaller size, lower density and protein content and has thereby lower energy available for germination per seed. These and other factors lead to generally lower germination vigour and a slower seedling emergence that limits the competition with weeds and yield potential. Since organic farmers shall use organic seed which are in general more expensive than non-organic seed, quality parameters like germination vigour should at least be at the same level as for non-organic seed. The quality requirements for the certification of seed is the same in non-organic and in organic seed production, and information of seed vigour is in most crops not available to the consumer. Seed companies therefore has an advantage to sell as much seed as possible and use the minimum requirements in the seed certification regulation, even though the seed vigour could be improved by seed separation. Research is needed in order to optimise the quality of organic seed.

 

Possible future development in the Baltic countries

The development of the regulation of organic seed depends on the international development of the organic standards. The agenda for the international trade is harmonisation, and it may therefore be interesting to see the status also outside EU.

 

The Baltic countries have implemented organic regulations. The inspection and certification body in Lithuania, EcoAgros is accredited by IOAS (IFOAM), and most parts of the EU-regulation is implemented, but still EU does not fully approve the regulation. The regulation in Estonia is also close to being approved by EU, but the inspection and certification is not accredited by IOAS. Neither EU nor IFOAM have accepted the regulation and inspection in Latvia. Latvia has implemented legislation on organic farming with standards in line with the EU regulation. The private inspector EQ is under approval by the national authority.

                     

All Baltic countries have standards requiring organic seed and vegetative propagating materials if available, but no organic seed or vegetative propagating materials are produced, imported or used in these countries at the moment. As all three countries negotiate for membership in the EU, they need to implement Council Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91 in good time before joining.

                     

The inspection and certification structure in the Baltic countries is similar to the character in the Nordic countries with a close link between competent authorities and inspecting/certification body, and with only one or two certifying and inspecting bodies in each country. This situation in both the Nordic and the Baltic countries is ideal for a well functioning database on available organic seed as the necessary basis for the regulation. It is therefore most likely that the Baltic countries are able to handle requirements from EU for the function of a database on available organic seed material.

 

 

 

REFERENCES

Literature

Andersson, J., 2001. Konsekvenser av regeringens nya mål för den ekologiska produktionen. Hushållningssällskapet i Skaraborg.

Centrum för Uthålligt Lantbruk (CUL), Konferensrapport 2001. Ekologiskt  lantbruk. Session 5: Produktion av ekologiskt utsäde – hur gör vi det möjligt?

Jonsson, H., 1999. Ekologisk vallfröproduktion. Hushållningssällskapet i Malmöhus.

Jordbruksverket 2001: Ekologiska jordbruksprodukter och livsmedel - Aktionsplan 2005. Rapport 2001:11. p.101

Landbrukstilsynet 2001: Tiltak for å øke produktjon av økologisk såvare og plantemateriale. Prosjektrapport. 22 p. (Ed: Torgun Johnsen a.o.)

Nielsen, B og L.Kristensen (ed.) 2001: Forædling af korn og bælgsæd samt produktion af såsæd i økologisk jordbrug. FØJO-Rapport nr. 15. 168 p.

Olvång, H., 2001. Undersökningar av odlingstekniska åtgärder för produktion av friskt utsäde För ekologisk odling, samt den hygieniska kvaliteten för livsmedel, foder och maltkornsframställning. Slutrapport av utvecklingsprojekt SJV 29-5910/96. Inst. f. ekologi och växtproduktionslära, SLU, Uppsala.

Ängmo, E., 2000. Organic vegetable seeds after year 2004 – An inventory of possibilities and obstacles, (summary in English). Report from Swedish Department of Horticulture, SLU.

 

Internet addresses

http://www.kttk.fi                  

homepage for Plant protection Inspection Centre in Finland

http://www.landbrukstilsynet.no                     

homepage for Landbrukstilsynet in Norway

http://www.lr.dk                                                               

homepage for Landbrugets rådgivning in Denmark

http://www.lr.dk/planteavl/informationsserier/oekologiskudsaed/master.htm

list of available organic seed in Denmark

http://www.pdir.dk                                                            

homepage for Plantedirektoratet in Denmark

http://www.sjv.se                                                              

homepage for the Swedish Board of Agriculture in Sweden         

http://www.organicxseeds.com

List of available organic seed in Europe. The list if edited and hosted by www.biogene.org in Switzerland.

Appendix 1: Production and supply of organic seed in the Nordic countries

 

 

Appendix 1A: Denmark:

 

Denmark: Inspected and approved organic cereal propagation (area basis 2001)

Crop

 

 

 

 

 

 

1999

2000

2001

 

 

 

 

 

Spring barley

540

1.400 (27%)

7.250

Spring wheat

50

80 (18%)

690

Spring oat

340

950 (67%)

1.650

Winter wheat

2.260 (100%)

1.700

?

Winter rye

440 (95%)

770

?

Triticale

 

550 (71%)

620

?

Pea

 

250

260 (10%)

490

Lupines

 

110

0

0

 

 

Denmark: Announced propagated area of organic cereals year 2002.

 

Pre-basic

Basic

C1

C2

Total

 

ha

ha

ha

ha

ha

Winter wheat

 

 

 

 

 

Asketis

0

0

0

187

187

Terra

0

0

0

155

155

Complet

0

0

0

77

77

Solist

0

0

0

63

63

Cardos

0

0

0

25

25

Agron

0

0

10

0

10

Ure

0

0

10

0

10

Winter wheat , total

0

0

20

507

527

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Winter rye

 

 

 

 

 

Hacada

0

0

253

0

253

Dominator

0

0

76

0

76

Matador

0

0

70

0

70

Walet

0

10

27

0

37

Humbolt

0

0

35

0

35

Winter rye, total

0

10

461

0

471

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Triticale

 

 

 

 

 

Lamberto

0

0

0

276

276

Tricolor

0

0

0

94

94

Modus

0

71

5

0

76

Triticale, total

0

71

5

370

446

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Winter barley

 

 

 

 

 

Ludo

0

0

0

20

20

Winter barley, total

0

0

0

20

20

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Winter cereals, total

0

81

486

897

1.464

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pre-basic

Basic

C1

C2

Total

 

ha

ha

ha

ha

ha

Spring barley

 

 

 

 

 

Cicero

0

0

0

858

858

Otira

0

0

0

669

669

Punto

0

0

0

301

301

Hydrogen

0

0

0

291

291

Odin

0

0

0

277

277

Fabel

0

0

0

268

268

Prestige

0

0

0

247

247

Barke

0

0

0

217

217

Alliot

0

0

0

175

175

Neruda

0

0

0

127

127

Landora

0

0

0

65

65

Astoria

0

0

0

36

36

Danuta

0

0

0

15

15

Modena

0

11

0

0

11

Spring barley, total

0

11

0

3.546

3.557

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Spring oat

 

 

 

 

 

Revisor

0

0

0

229

229

Corrado

0

0

0

188

188

Markant

0

0

0

174

174

Freddy

0

0

0

116

116

Gunhild

0

0

0

78

78

Oat, total

0

0

0

785

785

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Spring wheat

 

 

 

 

 

Vinjett

0

0

17

493

510

Leguan

0

0

0

51

51

Spring wheat, total

0

0

493

544

561

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Spring cereal, total

0

11

493

4.875

4.903


Denmark: Announced propagated area of organic seed year 2001.

Clover and grass seed:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pre-basic

Basic

C1

C2

Approved area

Red clover

 

0

0

205,5

0

205,5

White clover

 

0

0

326,6

0

326,6

Alfalfa

 

2

0

0

0

2

Hop medic

 

0

0

2

0

2

Perennial ryegrass

 

0

0

1085,6

0

1085,6

Italian ryegrass

 

0

0

107,1

0

107,1

Hybrid ryegrass

 

0

0

8,9

0

8,9

Timothy

 

0

0

60,9

0

60,9

Cock’s foot

 

0

0

7

0

7

Fescue grass

 

0

0

41,7

0

41,7

Red fescue

 

0

0

37,1

0

37,1

Meadow grass

 

0

0

38

0

38

Total

 

2

0

1,920.4

0

1,920.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Legumes

 

 

 

 

 

 

Peas

 

0

238,5

115,8

632,6

986,9

Lupins

 

62,5

0

0

0

62,5

Faba beans

 

0

0

56,2

0

56,2

Total

 

62,5

238,5

172

632,6

1043,1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Oil seed

 

 

 

 

 

 

Oil seed rape

 

0

0

10

0

10

Flax

 

0

0

8,1

0

8,1

Total

 

0

0

18,1

0

18,1

 

 


Appendix 1B: Sweden:

Production of organic cereal seed in Sweden 1999-2002 (area basis).

 

Hectars sown

 

Species

Variety

1999

2000

2001

2002

 Spring wheat

Curry

  97,9

  27,2

 

 

 

Dacke

242,5

271,5

475,2

684

 

Dragon

  50,2

  47,5

  47,5

  22

 

Vinjett

 

 

  14,0

  14

Oats

Heinrich

  63,0

  51,9

  41,1

 

 

Sang

247,9

239,6

278,7

411

 

Stork

 

  92,3

290,4

519

 

Freja

 

    6,1

 

 

 

Svala

 

 

  57,2

  40,5

 

Vendela

 

 

 

    4

Barley

Baronesse

  61,9

  67,9

  63,0

130

 

Mentor

  30,7

 

 

 

 

Orthega

  14,5

108,5

  72,7

237

 

Otira

 

112,7

115,8

 

 

Vanja

 

  11,5

 

  20

 

Olsok

 

 

    9,8

157

 

Kinnan

 

 

 

  16,5

Winter wheat

Bercy

    1,9

 

 

 

 

Kosack

  23,3

  15,9

  18,5

  41,5

 

Stava

206,9

336,0

486,0

563

 

Ebi

 

  31,1

  30,0

  46,8

 

Lars

 

    3,5

  12,9

 

Winter rye

Amilo

  81,7

142,7

201,6

147

 

Esprit

    8,7

 

    5,0

 

 

Nikita

 

  72,0

  60,3

  80,4

Triticale

Eldorado

 

  17,5

  40,2

 

 

Modus

 

  16,8

  16,3

  51

 

Fidelio

 

 

  21,6

150

 

Lamberto

 

 

 

  23,8

Peas

Agadir

  20,3

  64,6

  66,1

 

 

Aladin

  10,0

 

 

 

 

Carneval

  39,2

  13,0

 

 

 

Timo

  51,5

  10,0

  16,4

 

 

Brutus

 

101,0

120,4

178

 

Capella

 

 

  10,4

  22

 

Sponsor

 

 

  31,1

  27

 

Pinochio

 

 

 

546

Field beans

Columbo

    3,9

  12,5

  94,4

  39

 

Aurora

 

    9,6

 

 

 

Kontu

 

  9,2

  12,0

 

 

Gloria

 

 

 

  71

Total area (ha)

 

1 256

1 873

2 376

4 241

Increase/decrease (per year)

 

 

 

+   617

 

+   503

 

+ 1 865

 


 Field inspected area (ha) for organic production of clover and grass seed in Sweden 1999-2002.

 

 

Species

Variety

1999

2000

2001

2002

Alsike clover

Frida

    6,9

 

 

 

Red clover

Bjursele

    5,0

  

  16,8

  54,5

 

Betty

 

 

 

  11,0

 

Jesper

    8,0

  13,0

  12,1

    4,5

 

Pallas

    1,5

  11,5

    9,5

  37,5

 

Sara

    7,0

    5,0

  15,7

  35,0

 

Vivi

  

    7,5

 

 

 

Rajah

 

 

 

  24

White clover

Sonja

    4,6

    4,6

  15,5

    5

 

Lena

 

 

    3,9

 

 

Riesling

 

 

 

  16

Timothy

Alexander

  35,5

  30,7

  95,3

125

 

Kämpe II

  12,0

  12,0

  12,0

  12

 

Comtal

 

 

 

    5,8

 

Grindstad

 

 

 

  29

 

Jonatan

 

 

 

    9,5

Meadow fescue

Mimer

 

    5,5

 

 

 

Kasper

 

 

  10,0

  65

 

Sigmund

 

 

 

  28

Total (ha)

 

  80,5

  89,9

190,8

416,8

Increase/decrease

(per year)

 

 

 

+    9,4

 

+ 100,9

 

+ 315,9

 

 

 

 

Fields inspected area (ha) for organic production of seed potato in Sweden 1999-2001.

 

Species

Variety

1999

2000

2001

2002

Potato

Matilda

    5,5

    5,8

    2,0

    2,0

Increase/decrease

(per year)

 

 

 

+  0,3

 

-  3,8

 

+/-  0

 


Appendix 1C: Finland

Organic seed production 1996-2002 (on area basis)

 

Species

variety
Production area

 

 

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Oat

Aarre

-

18,0

50,0

65,2

116,0

78,1

114,9

 

Aslak

-

-

-

10,9

19,1

23,0

73,3

 

Freja

-

13,0

-

-

-

-

-

 

Kolbu

-

-

-

-

-

12,8

6,2

 

Lisbeth

-

-

-

24,4

-

-

-

 

Roope

-

-

-

12,4

-

59,3

40,8

 

Salo

-

-

-

8,5

-

-

-

 

Suomi

-

-

-

-

-

22,8

16,5

 

Veli

15,6

88,2

160,1

218,5

349,2

178,8

164,6

 

Yty

8,1

15,1

23,7

46,4

-

32,2

17,4

 

total

23,7

134,3

233,8

386,3

484,3

406,9

433,7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Barley

Arra

8,1

40,3

40,9

2,0

10,1

22,0

19,8

 

Artturi

8,3

-

38,5

97,8

60,9

36,5

32,5

 

Botnia

-

6,2

-

-

 

-

15,5

 

Erkki

-

-

-

11,8

14,4

22,0

22,5

 

Inari

-

-

11,0

-

2,6

-

15,0

 

Jyvä

-

-

-

-

-

8,7

20,7

 

Loviisa

-

-

-

64,3

80,3

39,5

17,5

 

Pohto

-

-

5,0

19,3

52,0

57,8

33,5

 

Saana

-

-

-

-

-

-

4,2

 

total

16,4

46,5

95,4

195,2

220,3

186,4

181,2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Winter rye

Akusti

-

7,9

7,9

28,7

51,3

47,0

16,4

 

Amilo

-

1,0

10,0

-

6,7

-

-

 

Iivo

-

-

-

-

-

-

31,0

 

Kartano

-

-

7,4

-

33,0

42,2

30,7

 

Riihi

-

-

-

-

26,3

40,3

15,7

 

Voima

-

37,8

62,7

15,7

35,1

-

3,0

 

total

-

46,7

78,0

44,4

152,41

129,5

80,4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Winter wheat

Aura

-

12,1

22,3

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Spring wheat

Anniina

-

-

-

-

-

-

10,0

 

Bastian

-

-

-

52,6

33,8

32,5

-

 

Kruunu

-

-

-

-

-

-

32,5

 

Mahti

-

-

-

-

22,0

24,0

2,1

 

Manu

-

-

10,0

53,8

6,0

6,3

23,4

 

Tjalve

-

27,0

-

-

-

-

-

 

total

-

27,0

10,0

106,4

61,8

62,8

68,0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pea

Julia

-

-

-

18,4

15,9

-

1,0

 

Perttu

-

-

3,3

12,0

-

-

6,7

 

Sohvi

2,0

20,6

12,0

14,4

6,0

4,4

-

 

Stok

-

-

-

-

-

11,0

-

 

Sunna

3,0

16,2

6,0

23,7

16,6

30,5

45,6

 

Tiina

-

8,9

26,8

20,8

48,5

-

5,7

 

total

5,0

45,7

48,1

89,3

87,0

45,9

59,0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Board bean

Hankkijan Ukko

-

7,0

-

-

-

-

-

 

Kontu

-

4,0

1,9

6,3

4,7

-

-

 

total

-

11,0

1,9

6,3

4,7

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Linseed

Helmi

29,2

93,5

90,6

61,4

13,0

15,8

19,9

 

Laura

-

6,4

-

-

-

-

-

 

total

29,2

93,5

90,6

61,4

13,0

15,8

19,9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Potato

Adora

-

2,0

1,2

-

1,3

-

-

 

Gloria

-

-

1,4

1,9

1,3

-

-

 

Idole

-

-

-

1,1

-

-

-

 

Matilda

2,0

3,4

1,7

5,0

1,3

-

-

 

Nicola

-

1,6

-

-

-

-

-

 

Olympia

1,4

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

Van Gogh

-

-

-

-

4,0

5,0

12,7

 

Suvi

-

-

-

2,1

1,3

-

-

 

Vital

5,6

10,8

1,6

-

-

-

-

 

total

9,0

17,8

5,9

10,1

9,2

5,0

12,7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Onion set

Jumbo

-

0,1

-

-

-

*

*

 

Sturon

-

0,2

-

-

-

*

*

 

Stuttgarter

-

0,1

0,1

-

-

*

*

 

total

 

0,4

0,1

-

-

*

*

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Garlic

 

1,6

1,4

1,5

1,3

1,6

*

*

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Red clover

Bjursele

2,4

102,3

121,4

138,5

136,9

284,5

253,1

 

Jesper

-

-

-

8,5

26,9

19,6

-

 

Jokioinen

5,1

18,5

39,8

47,4

36,5

26,1

49,5

 

Perttuli

-

-

-

-

-

8,3

-

 

Turunen

-

-

-

-

1,2

-

-

 

Varte

-

-

-

-

-

5,0

-

 

total

7,5

563,6

161,2

194,4

201,5

343,5

302,6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

White clover

Aberherald

-

-

-

1,6

8,6

-

-

 

Jögeva

-

-

-

-

-

6,5

2,0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alsike clover

Frida

-

-

5,8

10,8

9,3

22,2

8,9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common vetch

Ebena

1,0

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Goats rue

Gale

-

1,0

1,0

1,3

-

0,4

0,4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Timothy

Alma

-

-

-

-

7,2

-

-

 

Grindstad

-

-

-

-

-

28,0

-

 

Iki

24,3

90,8

108,5

189,6

239,5

203,3

181,6

 

Bottnia II

4,9

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

Nokka

6,0

14,3

18,0

21,0

30,7

34,4

31,6

 

Saga

-

16,8

7,0

7,0

-

25,0

-

 

Tammisto

-

-

-

-

-

12,1

21,3

 

Tuukka

-

-

-

-

7,8

13,1

13,1

 

Vega

-

-

-

7,5

7,5

21,5

22,7

 

Vähäsöyrinki

-

-

14,6

17,8

21,5

-

-

 

 total

35,2

121,9

148,1

117,1

314,2

337,5

270,3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Meadow fescue

Antti

-

5,4

4,8

9,9

22,5

32,3

-

 

Fure

-

-

-

-

2,2

2,2

2,2

 

Boris

-

4,6

-

-

-

-

-

 

Kasper

-

-

-

11,0

22,1

20,9

18,6

 

Kalevi

5,0

4,3

5,9

9,0

-

-

-

 

Salten

-

25,3

8,9

-

-

-

-

 

 total

5,0

39,6

19,6

29,9

46,8

55,9

20,8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tall fescue

Retu

-

-

4,2

8,7

13,3

8,8

8,8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cocksfoot

Haka

-

0,8

4,6

6,3

3,4

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Westerwolds rye-grass

Avance

-

-

5,0

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

- Sunflower

Allegro

-

-

-

0,6

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Turnip

 

-

-

-

-

0,3

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hemp

Finola

-

-

-

-

-

-

6,0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

total

 

133,6

696,0

947,1

1397,2

1631,7

1652,61

1474,7

* information not available


Appendix 1D: Norway:

Organic seed production 1999-2002 (on area basis)


 

Species

Variety

1999

2000

2001

2002

CEREALS

 

 

 

 

 

Spring barley

Thule

 

 

1,5

 

 

Gaute

 

 

 

12,8

 

Sunnita

 

 

 

29,0

 

 

 

 

 

 

Spring wheat

Avle

 

 

12,3

25,8

 

Bastian

 

 

 

8,0

 

 

 

 

 

 

Oat

Lena

 

 

18,7

71,8

 

Roope

 

 

7,0

 

 

Biri

 

 

 

3,0

 

 

 

 

 

 

Winter rye

Danko

 

 

 

9,0

 

 

 

 

 

 

Peas

Delta

 

 

2,5

5,0

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sum cereals

 

 

 

42,0

164,4

Increase/decrease -

 

 

 

 

+ 122,4

 

 

 

 

 

 

GRASS- AND CLOVER

 

 

 

 

 

Alsike clover

Alpo

 

 

 

8,5

 

 

 

 

 

 

Red clover

Nordi

10,0

 

6,5

3,0

 

Betty

19,8

28,9

15,4

14,5

 

 

 

 

 

 

Timothy

Grindstad

26,5

40,8

39,8

31,0

 

Vega

 

 

 

5,0

 

 

 

 

 

 

Meadow fescue

Fure

 

 

 

1,2

 

Salten

 

6,5

15,5

16,0

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sum grass- and clover

 

 

56,3

 

76,2

 

77,2

 

79,2

Increase/decrease

 

 

+19,9

+1,0

+2,0

 

 

 

 

 

 

SEED POTATOES

 

 

 

 

 

Gullauge

 

 

 

2,4

1,0

Troll

 

 

 

0,32

1,5

Mandel

 

 

 

0,3

 

Sum seed potatoes

 

 

 

3,04

2,5

Increase/decrease

 

 

 

 

-0,54

 


 

Appendix 2: Thresholds for seed borne diseases

Thresholds for seed borne diseases, when seed treatments of cereals are recommended in the Nordic countries. The methods of seed analysis differ in different countries, and this may affect the levels given.

 

 

Denmark

Finland

Sweden

Norway

Crop

Pathogen

 

 

 

 

Winter wheat

Tilletia caries

Tilletia contraversa

C1: if detected

C2: > 10 spores/g

If detected

If detected

 

Fusarium spp.

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