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Naturschutz und Ökologischer Landbau – auch zukünftig ein win-win-Modell

Reiter, Karin and Krug, Andreas (2003) Naturschutz und Ökologischer Landbau – auch zukünftig ein win-win-Modell. [Nature conservation and Organic Farming – towards a win-win-model.] In: Freyer, Bernhard (Ed.) Beiträge zur 7. Wissenschaftstagung zum Ökologischen Landbau, Universität für Bodenkultur Wien, Institut für Ökologischen Landbau, pp. 157-160.

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Summary

Die Vorzüglichkeit des Ökologischen Landbaus gegenüber konventioneller Landwirtschaft in seinen Auswirkungen auf den Naturhaushalt ist anhand von Vergleichsuntersuchungen vielfach dokumentiert. Die positiven Aspekte für den Naturschutz drohen jedoch unter ökonomischen Zwängen geringer zu werden. In frühzeitigen Reaktionen gemeinsam mit der Landwirtschaft gilt es, integrative Lösungskonzepte aufzuzeigen, wie Naturschutzbelange in den Ökologischen Landbau integriert werden können bzw. wie neue Wege beschritten werden können, naturschutzfachliche Optimierungen zu erreichen. Die Bemühungen müssen ihren Niederschlag auch im länderübergreifenden Austausch finden.

Summary translation

The advantages of organic farming compared to conventional systems regarding their environmental impacts are fairly well documented. The positive aspects for nature conservation may decrease due to lower market prices. Reactions are necessary at an early stage from both, actors in nature conservation and in agriculture, to develop cross national solutions how to integrate aspects of nature conservation into organic farming. Furthermore, the development of new ways for optimising nature integrative conservation concepts has to be an important future task. The extension of organic farming is highly recommended because of the increasing loss of species on conventionally farmed areas. On grasslands, organic farming is an important option to preserve species-rich meadows through reduced nutrient supply, lower intensity of grazing, later mowing dates and the ban of herbicides. On the other hand the organic farming system is not able to produce in a profitable way at the low production levels necessary for the conservation of highly extensified grasslands. Many grassland species do not build up any soil seed bank leading to problems in recreating diverse vegetation on species-poor grassland. On conventional fields, conservation of weed diversity is not observed. Indicators for rich nutrient supply as well as few herbicide tolerant species dominate. The species’ richness on organic farming fields is very conspicuous relative to conventional systems, supported by more diverse crop rotations. For extensified or very specific production systems, however, organic farming is not well adapted. The richer floristic environment in organic farming was found to be a better basis for a higher faunistic diversity than conventional systems. This was shown in many studies on carabids, spiders, earth worms and birds for example as well as on soil organisms. The German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (BfN) supports several testing and development projects (T+D-projects, see www.bfn.de) focussing on the implementation of nature conservation measures into the agricultural production process. The evaluation also comprises economical aspects (e.g. T+D-project “Nature conservation compliant optimising of large-scale organic farming - Brodowin“; preliminary investigation T+D-project „Integration of nature conservation aims into organic farming – Hessian state domain Frankenhausen“). We initiated the idea of a network of „Nature Conservation Farms (Naturschutzhöfe)“ to stimulate this integration. According to § 5 (3) of the new German Nature Conservation Act from April 2002 the “German Länder” have to define regional minimum densities of structural elements and to supply their development if this density is below the defined value. The definition of nature conservation standards (e.g. percentage of structural elements in the landscape) in the guidelines of organic farming organisations or by the EU could be an effective method because the increase of structural elements is in general said to be advantageous für natural mechanisms of regulation. In order to achieve this goal international exchange is very important. Therefore, in cooperation with IUCN and IFOAM an action plan was developed in order to strengthen IFOAM-standards for the protection of biodiversity.

EPrint Type:Conference paper, poster, etc.
Type of presentation:Paper
Keywords:Biotopqualität, Biodiversität, Grünland, Ackerwildkräuter, Fauna, Habitatstruktur, Bundesamt für Naturschutz, Naturschutzziele
Subjects: Environmental aspects > Biodiversity and ecosystem services
Research affiliation: Germany > Other organizations
Related Links:http://www.boku.ac.at/oekoland/index.htm#Abschluss, http://www.soel.de/projekte/wissenschaftstagung.html, http://www.soel.de/english/wissenschaftstagung_e.html
Deposited By: Reiter, Dr. Karin
ID Code:1019
Deposited On:25 Dec 2003
Last Modified:12 Apr 2010 07:27
Document Language:German - Deutsch
Status:Published
Refereed:Not peer-reviewed
Additional Publishing Information:Der Band "Beiträge zur 7. Wissenschaftstagung zum Ökologischen Landbau". Verlag Dr. Köster, Berlin, kann unter folgender Adresse bezogen werden:
Verlag Dr. Köster, Eylauer Str. 3, 10965 Berlin, Tel. 030-76403224, Fax: 030-76403227, verlag-koester@t-online.de.

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